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gibbon juvinile period...2
- until 4-4.5y
- play behavior (but less than other primates and only with yonger sibling)
benifits/functions of play...3
- develompent/refinment of physical skills
- learn the rules of objects
- develop social skills/bonds
gibbon subadult/adult life...
- threat gestures from adults
- mate and form new social unit
The area that a group defendes against it's own species.
where do gibbon territorial conflicts take place?
...how large os this area?...
- at the overlap of group territories
- 23-69m wide
a gibbon conflict...4
- rare actual fighting
the purpose of gibbon territorial behavior...2
- preventing concentration of animals
- control population size
habitit explanation of galenda social groups...2
- larger groups are more secure in terrestrial habitat
- big groups split when resources are scarce
galenda behavior is dependent on...2
galenda infant phase...2
- until 18 months
- black-dark-brown coat
- focal point of group (protection)
- coat changes to red at 6-18m
galenda juvenile phase...3
- begins at weaning (1-1.5y)
- play groups
galenda subadult female...3
- associates with other females and offspring
- keeps growing
- sexually dimorphic traits (canines, fur cape)
whyn would large groups lead to greater sexual dimorphism?
greater number af females leads to more intrasexual selection.
members of typical galenda harem...
- (11 members)
- 1 male
- 5 adult females
- 5 juveniles and infants
galenda harem unit...
- females bond (grooming)
- male on periphery
- outside females threatened
Behavior that involves fighting, threats, and fleeing.
what is the difference between agonistic behavior and agression?...2
- a broad range of dominance and submission behaviors are agonistic
- dysplay and gesture instead of fighting
some agonistic gestures...6
- raising eyebrows
- lunging in space
- slapping the group
- jerking head back and forth
- displaying teeth
galenda juvenile male...3
- first play groups
- then the all-male group
- they becomes a "follower male" to a harem
galenda juvenile female...3
- first play groups
- puberty-interest in males and infants
- sexual maturity-interest in group leader
the two ways harems form...
- young female and follower male start a new group
- follower male attacks older male and takes control of harem
Among galendas, a social group consisting of a number of harems and all-male units
Among galendas, a large social unit consisting of several bands that come together under very good grazing conditions
A multimale group found among baboons and other primates
well-studied primate besides humans and chimps...
- savanna baboons
- because they are easy to see in their wide open habitit
- because anthropologists are interested in the fact that humans anf baboons both adapted to the savannah
two explainations for variability in social organization within one species...
- learned behavioral patterns
baboon troops/home range...
- about 40 animals
- stay within distinct boundaries of home range
- no defened territorries
- extentisive home range overlap
- troops ignore each other
Sections within the home range of a primate population that may contain a concentration of food, a source of water, and a good resting place or sleeping trees, and in which most of the troop's time is spent
size of the core area depends on...2
- size of troop
- concentration of food
baboon diet...3 groups
- primarily grass
- seeds, flowers, fruit
- insects, small reptiles, mammal flesh
A system of social ranking based on the relative dominance of the animals withinn a social group.
The situation in which one animal can cause another to move away from food, a sitting place, and so on.
A behavior involving a subordinate primate showing his or her anal region to a dominant animal
A behavioral patten whereby one animal jumps on the posterior area of a second animalas a part of the act of copulation or as a part of dominance behavoir
most dominant baboon male...6
- good physical condition
- offspring of highest-ranking females
- supported by other dominant males
- can keep position even in old age
- recieves preference of food
- dominates reproductive females
behavoirs that show the dominance hirerachy in baboons...3
female baboon dominance hirearchy...3
- less often than males
- determined by mother's rank
- more significant to females than to males
subadult baboon male...2
- leaves their troop
- oftern dies on dangerous journey
the relative position of females dependes on...
- whether she is sexually receptive
- whether she has an infant
reproductive cycle of baboon is how many days long?...
a mature ovum moves from the ovary to the fallopian tube
period of sexual receptivity; does not occur during pregnancy or lactation
Act of female mammal producing milk
A temporary alliance between a male and an estrus female.
- sexual skin swelling
- olfactory cues
why will the dominant males probably father most of the baby baboons?
because the subordinate males make the first advances and the dominant males copulate around the time of ovulation
A small group of closely related females that engage in a high degree of grooming.