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- the ability to solve problems
- adapt and learn from experience
- creativity and interpersonal skills
- *Intelligence can not directly measured
- *evaluate indirectly by studying and compare intelligent acts that people perform.
French Gov't asked Binet to devise an IQ test. What did they say about the test?
the gov't wanted a method to determine which students would not benefit from typical school instruction. The test had 30 items: from touching one's nose to drawing designs from memory and define abstract concepts.
What did David Wechsler contribute to intelligence and how?
- He was the 1st to design a scale for use with adults.
- His scale provided IQ score and several composite scores: Verbal comprehension index, working memory index and processing speed index
What was Robert Sternberg contributions to IQ testing
The triarchic theory of intelligence with three main types of intelligence: analytical, creative and practical.
What was Daniel Coleman's contribution to the concept of emotional intelligence
he popularized through his book: ability to perceive and express emotional accurately and adaptively; understand emotion and emotional knowledge; to use feelings to facilitate thought and to manage emotions in oneself and others.
Intelligence is influenced by genetics and the extent to which it is influenced by environment.
- Genetics (nature) our genes make us smart.
- Environment has a strong influence on intelligence. and make a big difference in one's IQ
What group will benefit the most from high quality early intervention as far as intelligence.
The highest-risk children often benefit the most cognitively when the experience early intervention.
Male and Femals IQ test results, is there a difference? and if no difference in the over all score then what are some of the differences
scores do not differ much
- what does differ is: males are more likely to score really high or really low; score better in nonverbal areas
- Femals have faster processing speeds in reasoning and memory. and score better in verbal areas.
Infants under 2 yrs of age, how do they know if they are bright
test in three scales for the infant: cognitive, language and motor; two additional scales socio-emotional adn adaptive:
- at 6 months: vocalize pleasure and displeasure
- persistenly search for objects that are just out of reach adn approach a mirror that is placed in front of them
- at 12 monthsinhibit behavior when commanded, imitate words and respond to simple requests.
What are the implications on language of younger children after being isolated
not able to communicate normally and raises questions about the biological and environmental determinants of language.
What is baby babbling
happens at 6 months and they produce strings of consonant-vowel combinations
what is accomplished by an infant while crying, cooing and babbling
they practice making sounds to communicate and to attract attention during the 1st year.
in the 1st year what are the true statements for language development
- first spoken word usually nouns
- understand about 50 words
how many words does an average 2 year old speak
200 words. the rapid increase in vocabulary that begins at appox 18 months is called vocabulary spurts
the age when an infant uses to words or less
18 to 24 months they usually utter two-word utterances
who would a child see if they have a communication disorder/speech impediment and hearing problems
a speech athologist is a health professional who works with individuals who have a communication disorder
what are some true statements about writing skills in the 1st 2nd and 3rd grade
- *in early elementary grades children continue to reverse letters such as b and d and p and q, if other aspects of the child's development are normal, letter reversals do not predict literacy problems
- *through school years students develop increasingly sophisticated methods of organizing their ideas
- * they narrate and describe or write short poems.
how long does it take an immigrant child to learn and speak english
in general it takes immigrant children appox three to five years to speak porficiency and seven years to develop reading proficiency in English.
when is the best time to learn a 2nd language
this is a complex conclusion: in adolescents and adults new vocab is easier to learn than new sounds or new grammer. a child ability to pronounce words with a nativelike accent in a second language typically decreases with age. adults tend to learn a second language faster than children but their final level of attainment is not as high as a child.
in adults are there any language development variations and what is it dependent on
knowledge of words adn word meanings continue unchanged or may even improve through late adulthood. however some decline in language skills may occur in retrieving words for conversations, in understanding speech. these changes in language kills in older adults likely occur as a consequence of declines in working memory or in speed of processing information or as a result of disease.
what is emotion
is a feeling or affect that occurs when a person is engaged in a interaction that is important to him or her, expecially to his or her well being. characterized by behavior that reflects (expresses) the pleasantness or unpleasantness of the state that individuals are in or the transactions they are in.
how do psychologists help school aged children with their emotions/anger management
they help to regulate emotion, modulate their emotional arousal, become more adept to managing situations to minimize negative emotion and choose effective ways to cope with stress.
what are the differences between primary emotion and self-conscious emotions
primary are in humans and animals, emerge early in life examples are joy anger sadness fear and disgust.
secondary are emotions that require consciousness and a sense of "me". these appear at some pt in the 2nd half of the 1st year through the 2nd year. examples empathy jealousy embarrassment, pride shame and guilt.
when does a baby smile back at its caregiver
social smiling in response to a caregiver's smile at two to six months.
at what age does an infant smile when they see the caregivers face or hears its voice?
4 to 6 weeks
An infant will experience the emotion of fear when what happens
either stranger anxiety:fear towards a stranger or separation protest: fear of being separated from a caregiver.
What should a mother do when an infant cries
some say a quick response to soothe the crying will increase the crying
others say the quick comforting response to the infant's cries is an important ingredient to the development of a strong bond between the caregiver and the infant. studies show a quick response to a 3 month old cried less later in the first year of life.
researches say you cant spoil a child in the 1st year.
What type of family does a 10 year old come from that have cognitive strategies to cope with stress
a supportive family with not a lot of termoil or trauma
What factors contribute to an adolescents moodiness
pubertal change is associated with an increase in negative emotion, hormonal influences are often small, and environmental experiences may contribute more to the emotions of adolescence than hormonal changes.
Of the three types of infant temperament, which one is calm, nurturing quickly establishes regular routines
is classified as an easy child
what is heredity's role in the biological foundations of temperament
twin and adoption studies suggest that heredity has a moderate influence on differences in temperament within a people
what is gender
gender refers to the characteristics of people as males and females. among the components of gender are gender identity, gender roles, and gender typing.
what is freud's view on gender typing
freud's view that preschool children develop a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent then at 5 or 6 renounce the attraction because of anxious feelings, subsequently indetifying with the same-sex parent and unconsciously adopting the same-ses parent's characteristics.
what is gender role
sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act and feel.
In regard to school achievement, engaging in academic material, being attentive in class, put forth more acedemic effort and participate more in class: males or females
Who comes out in front in science, math and technology? males or females
gender differences across cultures
we find contextual variations regarding gender in specific situations, not only within a particular culture but also across cultures. Sociocultural contexts determone what is considered to be gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate socioemotional behavior.
What were the findings in 1994 during a sex in america survey
American's sexual lives were reported to be more conservative than in earlier surveys.
What are the chances of a child being raised by same sex parents being LGB themselves
they have no more of a chance of being LGB than a child being raised by heterosexual parents. Being LGB likely is the result of a combination of genetic, hormonal, cognitive and environmental factors.
How many adults are affected by STIs
one in every 6 US adults.
What is moral development
moral development involves changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding right and wrong. moral development consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions.
what was the importance of Kohlberg's theory on moral develp
Moral reasoning had three levels: preconventional conventional and post conventional. With 6 stages (2 for each level). stages were age related. influences on the stages included cognitive development, imitation and cognitive conflict, peer relations and perspective taking
what does Piaget and Kohlberg's theory's say
both argued that peer relations are critical part of the social stimulation that challenges children to advance their moral reasoning. The mutual give and take of peer relations provide children with role taking opportunities that give them a sense that rules are generated democratically.
what are gilligan's view of moral development
kohlberg's theory reflects gender bias. Gilligan's supports care perspective not justice perspective as Kohlberg's does. Girls view moral dilemas as human relationships.
parents and moral behaviors: what are the key factors
warmth and responsibility in mutual obligations of parent-child relationships provide important foundations for the childs positive moral growth. being warm and supportive rather than punitive; providing opportunities to learn about others perspectives and feelings
what are the basic processes responsible for moral behavior?
the process of reinforcement, punishment and imitation.
what is Walter Mischel's most importand variable in self control
what does Freud say about moral behaviors in children
guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty are the foundation of moral behavior. the superego is the moral bracnch of personality. the superego has two main components: the ego ideal and conscience.
what does research say about young kids and moral behaviors
they are aware of right and wrong, have the capacityh to show empathy toward others, experience guilt, indicate discomfort following transgression and are sensitive to violating rules.