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Three important chimpanzee field sites...
- Gombe National Park, Uganda (Jane Goodall)
- Tai National Park, Ivory Coast
- Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania
percent of time chimpanzees spend in trees feeding, resting, and sleeping...
How many hours per day do chimpanzees actively feed?
Stages of chimpanzee life:
- Infancy: 0-5y
- Juvenile: 5-7y
- Adolescence: 8-15y
- Maturity: 16-33y
- old age: 33y-death
Among chimpanzees, a large group that, through fission and fusion, is composed of a series of constantly changing smaller units including the all-male party, family unit, nursery unit consorship, and gathering
eight types of chimpanzee social groups...
- all-male party
- family unit
- nursery unit (two or more family units)
- mixed party
- sexual party (femals in estrus)
- consorship (adult male and female/no offspring)
- gathering (half the community)
- lone individual
chimp community characteristics...3
- consists of a series of small units
- male patrols kill intruders
a submission gesture of chimps...
crouching and reaching out to touch
- more social than female
- groom each other 2wice as much as female-male
- brothers form bonds in community
- show sexual swellings
- mates several males
- close bond with infants (own and others)
male chimp leaps into a tree and swings, and hair stand erect...
Tool used made and used by chimpanzees for collecting termites for food.
how does a chimp fashion a termite stick?...
...who do they learn from?...
- pulls off the leaves or breaks it to the right length
three chimpanzee tools
- termite stick
- leaf sponge
- wood/rock hammer
Among chimpanzees, a temporary group that forms after hunting to eat the meat.
what do chimps do that most primates do not?
deliberatly hunt meat
- bush pigs
- young baboons
- red colobus monkeys
gesture of holding up the hand, open palm, under the possessor's chin while making characteristic vocalizations...
chimp reqest for meat
how old is farming?
13,000 years old
Among humans, the basic social unit of hunting and gathering peoples, which typically consists of about 25 members.
three theories human lack of estrus...
- increased need for male cooperation; decreased cause for male competition
- required frequent copulation; encouraged male-female bond; increased liklihood of paternaty
- female gets multiple matings; confused paternaty; more protection for child
humans individuals who migrate to other bands differ from ape migrants in that...
they retain close ties with the group they leave
results in important socio-economic relationships between bands
warfare is not associated with foraging groups; is is associated with...2
agricultural and industrial societies
cooperation, equal access to resources, and the absence of strict hirearcheal systems...
a feature of human groups is the presence of a large number of...
in contrast to chimps, humans eat foods that...
...this leads to...
...another word for that is...
- require processing
- prolonged period of dependence of the offspring after weaning
The idea that the presence of a postmenopausal female in human groups increases the survival rate of children and grandchildren.
at what age are both chimp and human femlaes stop reproducing?
- most chimp females die, many humans live
what percent of chimps reach menopause?
the presence of a grandmother in a family group increases her...
why is life expectancy longer in industrial society?...2
...what stays about the same as in foraging society...
- because life expectancy is an average
- there are less infant and child deaths in industrial society
- probablility of living to an old age
learned, nonrandom, systematic behavior and knowledge. It is transmitted from person to person and from generation to generation, and is the accumulated inventory of ideas, values, beliefs, and manufactured goods
A collection of parts that are interrelated so that a change in any one part brings about specifiable changes in the others.
where is learned informatio stored?
in the cortex
...can continue the influence of past generations indefinently, resulting in a continuously increasing amount of concepts and physical products available to humans...
what often replaces biological alteration in humans?...
human have the biological potantial for...3
- behavioral flexibility
the simplest or beginning aspects of culture as seen in some non-human primates...
who wrote "culture is the special and exclusive product of men, and is their distinctive quality in the cosmos.
Alfred Louis Kroeber (1948)
two genetic behaviors that have been identified bu observing isolated monkeys...
- some vocalizations
- some dominance gestures
- use of cheek pouches
place where Macaque sweet-potato protoculture evolved...
Koshima Island, Japan
what happenss when the monkeys carry sweet potatos to the sea to wash them?
...what would happen is this truned out to be a selective advantage?
- they move bipedally
- changes in the frequency of bipedal antomic traits
How did primatologists identify which chimp behaviors represent learned traditions?...2
- identifing differences between populations
- ruling out ecological factors
sex based division of labor and language are both...
Occurs when some stimulus or message is transmitted and recieved; in relation to animal life, when one animal transmits information to another animal...
A characteristic of language. Signals, such as words, represent discrete entities or experiences; a discrete signal does not blean with other signals.
the four catagories of primate communication
olfaction is more important for ..2...that for ..2...
- prosimians and NWM
- OWM and apes
prosimians and some monkeys tend to make sound that are...
nonhuman anthropoids have calls that grade into each other...
serves as alarm system among gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, rhesus monkeys, and langurs
sounds that signal distress
screeching and screaming
sound indicates annoyance
sounds can convey...3
- quantitative information
- behavoiral instructions
A characteristic of language. Refers to the expansionary nature of language, which enebles people to coin new lables for new concepts and objects.
A characteristic of language. Aword of another unit of sound has no real connection to the thing to which it refers; the meanings must be learned
The ability to communicate about events at times and places other that where they occur; enables a person to talk and think about things not directly in front of him or her
In linguistics, the total number of meanignful units (such as words and affixes) of a language
A set of rules used in used to make up words and then to combine them into larger utterances such as phrases and sentences
A small area of the human brain that controls the pronciation of speech sounds