quiz #4- cerebellum II

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quiz #4- cerebellum II
2011-04-23 12:10:18

cerebellum- limbic system, hypothalamus
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  1. What influences the hypothalamus?
    • neural influences
    • hormonal influences
  2. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
    • ANS regulation from descending pathways
    • hormone production
    • endocrine regulation from pituitary gland
    • circadian rythym regulation relays thru hypothalamus to visual systems then project back to pineal gland creating light/dark cycles
    • limbic system variation
    • other various things: temp regulation/feeding
  3. What can disorders of the hypothalamus cause?
    • temp regulation problems
    • emaciation
    • obesity
    • sleep disturbances
    • diabetes
    • genital hypoplasia
    • effect optic/visual system
  4. What does the limbic system control?
    • emotional, behavioral type of center of the brain
    • preservation of species (securing food, defense mechanisms, sexual behavior)
    • emotions
    • affective behavior
    • memory
    • motivation
  5. Where is the limbic system located?
    deep and close to the midline
  6. What are different components of the limbic system?
    • cingulate gyrus
    • parahippocampal gyrus
    • mamillary body
    • hippocampus
    • anterior thalamic nucleus
    • amygdala
    • septal nucleus
    • dorsomedial thalmic nuclei
  7. What is the circuit of papez?
    • describes structural standpoint connections in the limbic system
    • starts in hippocampus --> through fornix to mammilary body --> to anterior thalamic nucleus --> to cingulate gyrus and back through cingulum to hippocampus again
  8. Where is the amygdala located?
    • deep to uncus
    • rostral to hippocampal formation
    • near tail of caudate
    • rostral part of lateral ventricle inf. horn
  9. What is the function of the amygdala?
    • lip smacking
    • chewing
    • autonomic responses
    • fear
    • rage
    • anxiety
  10. What did the Kluver-Bucy monkey study reveal?
    • Kluver-Bucy syndrome
    • placidity (mellow)
    • visual agnosia (wouldn't be scared of snakes)
    • oral tendencies
    • hypersexuality
  11. What can cause Kluver-Bucy syndrome?
    • chronic alcohol abuse
    • deep brain injuries
  12. What are other names for thalamic pain syndrome?
    • central pain syndrome
    • Dejenne-Roussy syndrome
    • posterior thalamic pain
    • retrolenticular stroke
  13. What can cause thalamic pain syndrome?
    • direct injury to thalamus
    • suprathalamic cortical lesion
    • brainstem infarct
    • primary or secondary tumors
  14. What are signs/symptoms of thalamic pain syndrome?
    • pain is continous and excrutitating after it starts
    • allodynia: pain elicited by non-noxious stimlui (shaving, make up)
    • hyperalgesia: exaggerated pain response to noxious stimuli
    • dysthesia: abnormal pain sensations (dante-esque pain- dante's inferno)
  15. What is central sensitization in thalamic pain syndrome?
    • ectopic discharge: cells associated with pain create it at cortical and thalamic levels
    • reorganization of mechanoreceptor input: DC/ML; receptors go to bad places of the thalamus
    • inappropriate connections w/ nocioceptive pathways
    • reduced nocioceptive threshold
    • increased receptive field size causing mulitple neurons to dishcharge with a small stimulation on the skin so the receptive fields overlap
    • loss of descending inhibitory control over pain pathways in the thalamus, so the ascending pathways go wild