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What is Hegemony?
Those in power stay in power. Reinforces current power to maintain the status quo. Gramsci coined the turn cultural hegemony.
What is public domain?
The public has free access to use material in the public domain.
What is fair use?
The doctrine that brief excerpts of copyright material may, under certain circumstances, be quoted verbatim for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching, and research, without the need for permission from or payment to the copyright holder
What is digital rights management?
generic term for access control technologies that can be used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to impose limitations on the usage of digital content and devices.
What is the public sphere?
an area in social life where people can get together and freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action. Know it's relation to internet?
What is representation?
Assigning of meaning through language and culture. It's not reflection but construction!
What does representation do?
- 1. It constructs reality.
- 2. Has material effects--may cause audience to not fun certain programs
- 3. representation shapes social understanding behavior, policy, and law.
What is representation about?
- 1. Meaning
- 2. Social Structures
- 3. Power
- 4. Justify inequality
Media and representation:
institutes develop habitual ways of representing. framing.
What are key ideas in stereotyping?
- 1. Marking of difference
- 2. Classification
- 3. Essentialization: deciding certain essential qualities.
- 4. Hierarchy
- 5. Naturalization
What is The Gaze?
Idea from Berger. That women are objects to by looked at.
Marx ideas about discourse
- 1. Economic determinism
- 2. False consciousness
What is false consciousness?
Don't want workers to recognize the social relations that keep them poor.
- More dynamic than Marx. Believed power was negotiated.
- Coined the term hegemony
Foucault ideas about discourse
- power operates through discourse.
- It's not top down.
- power and knowledge-implicated in each other
- Power makes knowledge true
What is discourse?
becomes all related ways in which a given set of ideas and meaning are constructed.
What is regime of truth?
(Foucault) Discourses create these regimes. ex. term child-huge legalities tied to the definition.
What is discursive formation?
What is parole?
an individual utterance which can shift meaning.
What are codes?
system of production of meaning.
What is Marx's base super structure model?
Economic Determinism: base=owner, base determines structure i.e. cultural and political activities
Saw 'common sense' as having good sense and...?
it needs to be developed in trying to unmask the reality of class divided societies and to struggle successfully for change.
Subjects v. Objects
- 1. Power to ascribe social position
- 2. power to display
- 3. right to consume
- 4. right to use as accessory
- 5. right to look at someone
What is fragmented subjectivity?
Women must inhabit multiple personas, some in conflict, identities are in contradictions to themselves.
What is feminine mystique?
False belief that women find identity and meaning in their lives only through their husbands and children. All women have a built in maternal instinct. Women are nurturing passive and inherently domestic.
Stereotypes of women over time:
- 50s and 60s: homemaker
- 70s: slim, beautiful, dumb-worked only as secretaries, nurses, teachers subordinate positions.
- 80s: rise of embedded feminism
- 90s: women's rights acknowledge but there's more contradictions ex. Spice Girls
Virgin/Whore Binary Opposition
Women are criticized either way. Women must be seen as pure and if they have sex outside of marriage they are seen as a whore.
What is symbolic annihilation?
the systematic underrepresentation of a particular group and media representations that favor stereotypes and omit realistic portrayals.
The Gaze: passive v. active
Women are to be looked at. Men act, women appear
Appearance and Surveillance for women
Women must always put themselves under surveillance. Body image is crucial.
What is embedded feminism?
feminist gains attitudes and achievements are women into our culture fabric. ex. roseanne
what is enlightened sexism?
Resurrects sexist stereotypes of firls and women insiting the jokes are okay because equality has been achieved. Invites viewer to be ironically sexist.
what is post-feminism?
- An ideology that insists that feminism's goals have been achieved, thus feminism is irrelevant and outdated.
- Relies on repudiating feminism
Characteristics of hegemonic masculinity:
- 1. tough guys
- 2. buff and rugged
- 3. ambitious
- 4. aggressive
- 5. self reliant
- 6. stoic
men portrayed with funs, tanks, resistance to torture, ability to kill, emotionless. initiation into masculinity and brotherhood. heterosexual and power over women
Representations of men 80s-2000s
- 80s: slight shift to the sensitive new age guy
- 90s: gay men on television. accepted but stereotyped.
What is race?
- 1. not a category of nature
- 2. ideology through which unequal distributions of wealth and power are naturalized.
- 3. mode of placing cultural meaning on the body
- 4. media play a central role in cultural construction of race and stereotypes
- 1. drew on racist conventions.
- 2. made fun of slow witted black men.
- 3. white men dressed as black men.
What is racial formation?
the process of assigning meaning to racial differences and constructing racial categories
What is racial project?
mode of explaining social differences using racial ideas to justify unequal access to resources.
Dimensions on which stereotypes operate (7)
- 1. civil/barbaric
- 2. smart
- 3. rational
- 4. inferior
- 5. self controlled/calm
- 6. sexuality
- 7. pure
Characteristics of whiteness
- standard contrast against which other races are measured
- 1. self controlled
- 2. disciplined.
- 3. ambitious
- 4. rational
- 5. intelligent
Racial comity v Racial hostility
Entman and Rojecki emphasized racial comity as normal ideal
what is intersectionality?
the idea that discourses of race, gender, and class intersect in their influence of how they shape peoples positions. Not additive but very complex.
Media Representations of Class
- 1. more shows in recent past deal w/ middle class or white collar.
- 2. blue collar class is severely underrepresented
- when represented, stereotyped
- 3. Upward mobility is still the American Dream
Why is news media important?
- 1. In a democracy, the people govern
- 2. meed accurate, reliable information
What is The Fourth Estate?
- 1. the fourth governing art in opposition to gov
- 2. unofficial social and political force
- 3. as important as the official sources of power
- 4. checks and balances
The ideal of objectivity in journalism is:
What is issue dualism?
The fact that there are two sides to every story.
Origin of news and 5 Eras
- Contemporary American news emerged out of several traditions.
- 1. Partisan
- 2. Commercial
- 3. Objectivity
- 4. Interpretive
- 5. Fragmented
What is the Partisan Era?
neutrality does not exist yet. focused on politics and commercial transactions
Changes due to the evolution of the Penny Press:
- 1. cheaper
- 2. emphasis on local news
- 3. included crime news
- 4. increased coverage of upper and lower class
- 5. emphasis on speed and competition
1st agency was the associated press: cooperative venture among New York City paper. pooled resourced to sell news to others and began using the telegraph.
- 1, Freed political patrons, a sense of strong publishers and editors attempted to outdo one another in attracting advertisements
- 2. Yellow journalism: tabloid style, fantastical journalism that down plays legitimate news in favor of eye catching headlines.
- 1. Pulitzer wanted professionalism
- 2. Journalism schools created
- 3. Reporters have power
- 4. People trusted the media
- 1. limits of objectivity
- 2. reporters acknowledge their own bias
- 3. more interpretive news
- 4. news analysis emerges
- 5. In news analysis reporters try to explain what lies behind
- 1. More interpretive
- 2. more news outlets
- 3. news media fragmented, little agreement on even basic facts, let alone interpretation
News values (9)
- 1. Recentness
- 2. Threshold
- 3. Proximity- targeted audience
- 4. Negativity- outside norm something bad
- 5. Predictability- events ppl look forward to i.e. elections
- 6. Continuity- i.e. OJ simpson (follow story)
- 7. Composition-variety
- 8. personalization-celebrities
- 9. entertainment
What makes stories newsworthy?
- 1. impact
- 2. significance
- 3. novelty
- 4. quality of images
What is a news peg?
recent event which is used as a handle to hang other related stories on. i.e. back to school=budget cuts, events, teachers,
What is a news hole?
The amount of space in a newspaper or broadcast news shows that remains for journalism after advertising has been placed.
Why do we get the news we do?
- 1. the agendas of public officials
- 2. journalism ambition
- 3. ratings
- 4. censorship
- 5. news routine
- 6. profit pressures
- Gov conflicts i.e. presidential
- Crimes, scandals, wars, disasters
- National ceremonies
- Rites of passage
- People who break rules
What kinds of people are in the news?
- people who break rules
- world leaders
- victims of disasters
- usual people
Who are likely to be sources?
- Those close to power
- Eager to be sources
- Close to journalist and discreet
- Need a very strong relationship
- between journalist and source
Nearly 50% of news originate from...
Biases in the News Media:
- Dominant media:firms=big businesses
- The news shy away from controversy to get quality audiences
- Advertisers want
- 1)to reach a quality audience
- 2) to avoid controversy
- 3) to entertain
- heavy reliance on official sources and powerful
- sources including corporate and governmental public relations firms
- social circles: publishers,
- editors, and news reporters
Who's favored in news?
- management over labor
- corporatism over anti-corporatism
- affluent over the poor
- private enterprises
- males over females
- officialdom over protests
Whom/What we do NOT see
- Community activist groups
- Young people who are not victims or criminals
- Middle class
- colored people
- Left of center journalists, politicians
- Working class
Trends in News
- More infotainment and soft news
- Less international news-rely on wire services
- More competition over ratings, more pressure to earn a profit
- Internal self-censorship and self advertising as news
- More branding of news
Issues raised by new media and convergence
- quality of news
Origins of the Internet
- Advanced research projects agency sponsored defense research
- Used to be information sharing based, mainly universities
- 1991: commercialization with brand width, security, software algorithms
- 1995: internet becomes private
What is the digital divide?
gap between those who have access to new media and internet and those who don't
who coined the term "global village"?
McLuhan theorized the internet would bring people together
Time biased and space biased media
Innis said time biased media were meant to last over time (i.e. stone tablets. Space biased media are media that reach a large group of people but do not last overtime (i.e. tv broadcast).
"No sense of place" was said by who?
Meyrowitz: theorized ppl would be confused about their identity because influences on us are coming from so many places.
Consequences in terms of Social Transformations
- 1. Blurring of public and private behaviors
- 2. Blurring of spaces and their functions
- 3. Blurring of social economic political and cultural functions of spaces and media
What is a network society?
Castells: said technology will help us connect and we'll have a social capital
What is filtering to Cass Sunstein?
fewer unexpected encounters with new ideas and fewer shared experiences.
Utopian potential of technology?
- 1. speed up life
- 2. connection
- 3. flatten hierarchy
- 4. promote democratization
- 5. promote one to many, many to many
- 6. elude capitalism
Dystopian potential of technology
- 1. speed of life
- 2. isolation
- 3. promote more access to ppl for capitalism (ads)
- 4. lack of quality material
- 5. lack of shared community
- 6. weakening of public sphere and democracy
What is globalization?
The transnational and transcultural flow of media ppl technologies ideologies finances and cultures.
What are the 4 perceptions on global media?
- 1. cultural exchange
- 2. cultural imperialism
- 3. cultural nationalization
- 4. cultural hybridity
What is subject position?
there are different power roles in different situations depending on your position...example: in our class, my subject position is one of power as an instructor but in my own classes my subject position has less power and a different role as a student.
What is Cultural exchange?
Utopian worldview of uniting the world as a global village. Advocates free flow of media across nations and cultures using satellites. technological optimism. Ideology of permissivism (free enterprise).
What is permissivism?
What is Cultural Imperialism?
- colonizing other markets.
- Unproportional reciprocation
- One country more powerful
- Dystopian worldview of global village
- Highlights one way media flow
- demand free and fair flow of information
- fear globalization=westernization "americanization"
What is Cultural Hybridity?
- focus on transborder flows of information across global media.
- combo of new and old cultural traditions
- the arguments that play between imitation and innovation in TV leads to creation of hybrid genre styles, fashion, cultures.
What is Cultural Nationalism?
- Ideology of paternalism
- Purity of national culture
- favors government regulation of media flows using restrictions. i.e. Academie Francaise
What is the ideological function of mass culture?
propagates false consciousness
What are some facts about Urban blues queens?
- Themes of dislocation, hardships, longing and desire.
- Drew attention to the hardworking african american women using mass culture to spread the word.
What is group polarization?
Group polarization is the idea that people are increasingly seeking out information that reinforces their current beliefs. This is related to audience segmentation because it refers to small groups of like minded people grouping together to the exclusion of others.