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function of lymphatic system
collects excess intersitital fluid
and return it to the blood
takes the excess fluid through....
what can the lymph nodes do?
prepared to elicit an immune response if necessary
lymphatic system does what with low soluble fats
reroutes them around small capillaries of the intestine
takes them into large veins of the neck
Is the lymphatic system an open or closed system? And why?
fluid enteres at one end and leaves at the other
how does material (fluid or particles) enter into lymphatic vessel?
interstitial fluid flows between overlaping endothelial cells
large particles push their way through
lymp vessel designed so that...
once inside the lymph, they cannot push their way out
once inside lymph, what is the gauge pressure
as interstitial pressure rises toward zero, does lymph flow increase or decrease?
flow increases - in one direction
Once inside, how is the fluid propelled throughout he valves of lymph?
- 1-smooth muscle in the larger lymph vessels contract
- 2-lymph vessels may be squeezed by adjacent skeletal muscles
lymph flow and skeletal muscles
lymph flow of an active individual is considerably greater than in an individual at rest
where does lymph system empty fluid?
large veins in the thoracic duct
what kind of tissue is blood
regulates extracellular env. (transporting nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat)
protects the body from injury and foreign invaders
centrifuge of blood gives....
plasma (water, ions, urea, ammonia, proteins)
white blood cells
red blood cells
RBC and WBC (other names)
RBC = erythrocytes
WBC = leukocytes
what are the proteins in the blood?
transports fatty acids and steroids
regulates osmotic pressure in blood
red blood cells (erythrocytes) function
- transport O2 and CO2
- like bags of hemoglobin
do erythrocytes have organelles? Do they reproduce?
cannot undergo mitosis
as erythrocytes pass through plasma membranes what happens to them? what happens next?
they get worn out
spleen destroys old, worn RBC
protect body from foreign invaders
do leukocytes have hemoglobin? organelles?
what are stem cells?
all blood cells come from the same type or precursor: stem cells
where do stem cells reside?
If RBC and WBC have a common precursor, how do erythrocytes lost their organelles?
lose their nucleus while still in the marrow
lose organelles when they enter the blood stream
luekocyte formation is more complex, why?
there are different kinds
Immune System: what are the two kinds of immunity?
innate v. acquired immunity
innate = generalized protection
acquired = protection against specific organisms or toxins
innate immunity fighters
- skin = barrier
- stomach = low pH and digestive enzymes
- phagocytotic cells
- chemicals in the blood
Innate immunity: what is inflammation
injury to tissue
what goes on physiologically during inflammation?
dilation of blood vessels
increased permeability of capillaries
swelling of tissue cells
reason for inflammation
"block" of effected tissue from rest of the body in order to prevent spreading of infection
what do swollen glands indicate?
swollen lymph nodes with immune cells are ready to fight invasion
acquired immunity - divided further into...
humoral is what kind of immunity? (what cell)
B lymphocytes mature where?
bone marrow and liver
what do b lymphocytes produce?
what do antibodies do?
stimulate immune response if it recognizes a foreign particle (antigen)
what happens when antibody meets antigen?
begin a cascade of runs involving blood proteins
what do helper T cells do?
help lymphocyte to differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells
what do plasma cells do?
synthesize free antibodies and release them into the blood stream
where are plasma cells derived from?
stem cells in the bone marrow
what do memory B cells do?
stay in the body, prepare for reinfection
second infection = trigger a secondary response
humoral immunity is effective against:
bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoans, viruses and blood toxins
cell mediated immunity: what kind of immunity? what cell
do T-lymphocytes make antibodies?
no, instead they test agains self-antigens
what are self-antigens?
expressed in normal cells of the body
what happens if a T cell binds to a self-antigen?
it is destroyed
if T cell is not destroyed?
- differentiates into: helper T cells
- memory T cells
- suppressor T cells
- killer T cells
helper T cells
assist in activating B lymphocytes and killer & suppressor T cells
memory T cells
similar to memory B cells
suppressor T cells
negative feedback in immune system
killer T cells
bind to the antigen-carrying cell and release a protein which punctures the cell
[responsible for fighting off some forms of cancer, and attacking transplanted tissue]
cell mediated immunity is effective against
summary of bacterial infection
macrophages, then neutrophils engulf bacteria
interstitial fluid is flushed into lymphatic system
once in lymphatic system.....
macrophages proces and present bacterial antigens to B lymphocytes
- T helper cells help B lymphocytes differentiate
- memory cells prepare for reinfection
produce antibodies released into blood stream to attack bacteria
blood type has corresponding antigen
specific types and antigens
- Type A = A antigens
- Type B = B antigens
- Type AB = A and B antigens
- Type O = no antigens
if RBC has an antigen does immune system make antibodies against that antigen?
immune sys. makes antibodies for all other antigens
universal donor and acceptor?
universal donor = O
universal acceptor = AB
- A: IAIA or IAi
- B: IBIB or IBi
What does Rh negative mean?
genotype codes for nonfunction products of the Rh gene
Rh- mother has a fetus that is Rh+ and she makes antibodies for +
next pregnancy....fetus is Rh+ then fetus is attacked by mother's antibodies