Test 4

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Test 4
2011-04-25 09:23:36

Test 4
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  1. What are the tubes called that exit the kidneys?
  2. What drains the urine from the kidneys?
  3. What is the organ that stores urine?
  4. Do the ureters enter the bladder from the top or the bottom?
  5. What is the pathway that comes out of the bladder?
  6. What is the major function of the renal system?
    Remove nitrogenous organic wastes out of the blood
  7. What is an example of nitrogenous wastes?
  8. What does aldosterone help reabsorb?
  9. Are the kidneys responsible for Hydrogen or Bicarbonate?
  10. If you are too acidic, what ion would you want to secrete?

  11. If you have too litte blood volume, what are the hormones secreted?
    Aldosterone & ADH
  12. What is the antagonist to aldosterone & ADH?
  13. RBC production is via what hormone?
  14. When would you want to increase RBC concentration?

    Low or High Blood Volume?
    Low Blood Volume
  15. How does producing more RBC help blood volume?
    Increasing Osmotic Pressure to pull fluid into circulation
  16. What is the tough fibrous outer cover of the kidney?
    Renal Capsule
  17. What surrounds the renal capsule protecting the kidney from blunt trauma?
    Fat Pad
  18. Where do the structures enter and exit the kidneys?
  19. What are the triangle shaped structures in the kidney?
  20. What are the tissues in between the pyramids?
    Renal Columns
  21. What are the vase-like structures the pyramids rest on?
    Calyx (Calyces)
  22. What is the common area where all the calyces come together to form one central space just before you exit the kidney?
    Renal Pelvis
  23. What are the extensions of the pyramid that protrude into the calyx?
  24. Name the structures that dribble urine all day long into the calyces.
  25. What type of junctions do you find in the cells of the bladder?

    Tight or Gap

    (Don't want your bladder leaking urine)
  26. If an imaginary line is drawn across the top of the pyramids, anything inside of the line will be what?

    Cortex or Medulla
  27. If an imaginary line is drawn across the top of the pyramids, anything outside of the line will be what?

    Cortex or Medulla
  28. What makes up most of the main body of the kidney?

    Cortical or Medullary Tissue
    Medullary Tissue
  29. What is the collective term for the Glomerulus and Bowman's Capsule?
    Renal Corpuscle
  30. Referring to muscles, what is the functional unit of anything?

    (Smallest collection of parts that get the job done)
  31. What is the functional unit of the kidney?
  32. What three things must occur in order to form urine?
    Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion
  33. What is the small capillary bed within the nephron?
  34. What is the site of filtration where water is forced out of the blood?
  35. What is the pressure forcing fluid out of the capillaries?

    Hydrostatic or Osmotic
  36. What are the special type of cells that lay on the surface of the glomerulus?
  37. What is the double-walled hollow sphere that collects filtrate and surrounds the glomerulus?

    (Hint: plastic grapes)
    Bowman's Capsule
  38. Where does filtration occur?
    Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
  39. What is the process when something is small enough to get filtered but you want to keep it?

    (Hint: Glucose)
  40. What is the process when something is too big to be filtered so you want to get rid of it?
  41. What is the structure coming off the Bowman's Capsule where 90% of water is reabsorbed?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  42. Where do you have obligitory water reabsorption?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  43. What means "water will be absorbed here no matter what?"
    Obligitory Water Reabsorption
  44. In the Loop of Henle, as the filtrate is moving down the descending limb is it becoming more or less concentrated?
    More Concentrated
  45. In the Loop of Henle, where do you undergo secretion and reabsorption?
    Ascending Limb
  46. In the Loop of Henle, where does the filtrate dilute due to reabsorption of ions & solutes?
  47. Which limb of the Loop of Henle comes off of the Proximal Convoluted Tubules heading down into the pyramids?
  48. Which limb of the Loop of Henle moves toward the Distal Convoluted Tubules?
  49. Where would you have facilitated water reabsorption?
    Distal Convoluted Tubule
  50. ADH and/or Aldosterone is required in what type of water reabsorption?
  51. Name the arteriole that brings blood into the glomerulus.
  52. Name the arteriole that brings blood out of the glomerulus?
  53. What makes up the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus?
    Distal Convoluted Tubule & Afferent Arteriole
  54. What is the function of the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus?
    Maintain a steady pressure inside the glomerulus of 10 mmHg
  55. What structure brings blood into the kidney?
    Renal Artery
  56. What are the structures where the renal artery branches over the renal pelvis?
    Segmental Arteries
  57. What arteries branch in between the pyramids?
    Interlobar Arteries
  58. What arteries arch over top of the pyramids?
    Arcuate Arteries
  59. What are the smaller vessels that branch off of the interlobar & arcuate arteries?
    Interlobular Arteries
  60. What branches off of the interlobular arteries?
    Afferent Arterial
  61. What forms the glomerulus?
    Afferent Arterials
  62. What brings blood out of the glomerulus?
    Efferent Arterial
  63. What is formed by efferent arterials?
    Peritubular Capillaries
  64. What surrounds the tubes in the kidney in the Loop of Henle?
    Peritubular Capillaries
  65. What is formed by the peritubular capillaries?
    Interlobular Veins
  66. Where do the interlobular veins dump in to?
    Arcuate Vein
  67. What do arcuate veins turn in to?
    Interlobar Veins
  68. What do interlobar veins turn in to?
    Segmental Veins
  69. Where do the segmental veins exit?
    Renal Vein
  70. What is the flow of blood through the kidney?

    (Hint: 14 steps)
    • Renal Artery
    • Segmental Artery
    • Interlobar Artery
    • Arcuate Artery
    • Interlobular Artery
    • Afferent Arterial
    • Glomerulus
    • Efferent Arterial
    • Peritubular Capillaries
    • Interlobular Vein
    • Arcuate Vein
    • Interlobar Vein
    • Segmental Vein
    • Renal Vein
  71. How does the presence of ADH & Aldosterone affect urine concentration?

    (Hint: 3 things)
    • Water Conservation
    • More Concentrated when both are combined
    • Darker Urine = More Dehydrated
  72. What is the ability for the blood pressure to be maintained within the glomerulus?
  73. What is the typical pressure within the glomerulus?
    10 mmHg
  74. How does sympathetic input affect urine production?
    Decrease Output
  75. What is the maximum amount of a substance that can be reabsorbed by the kidneys?
    Tubular Maximum
  76. What is reached when all protein gates are engaged?
    Tubular Maximum
  77. What is the term for the urge to urinate?
    Micturation Reflex
  78. What do you call the condition where glucose is showing up in urine?
  79. What are the effects of aging on the renal system?

    (Hint: 3 things)
    • Fewer active nephrons (kidneys are wearing out)
    • Weak Sphincters
    • Not as responsive to ADH & Aldosterone (not reabsorbing as much water)
  80. What are the two fluid compartments of the body?
    IFC & EFC
  81. What does IFC stand for?
    Intracellular Fluid Compartment
  82. What does EFC stand for?
    Extracellular Fluid Compartment
  83. Which has the greatest volume?

    IFC or EFC
  84. Are we made up of more cells or spaces between cells?
  85. How does the NaK pump work?
    • 3 Na Out
    • 2 K In
  86. What is the main component of IFC?
  87. What is the main component of EFC?
  88. Is osmolality the same or different between IFC and EFC?
  89. Do homeostatic mechanisms monitor the IFC or EFC?
  90. Are the solutes between the IFC and EFC the same or different?
  91. What is the tonicity of a fluid that doesn't cause any net movement of water across the membrane?
  92. If you lose body fluid (blood, dehydration, inadequate water intake) how will that affect the concentration of the EFC?

    More or Less Concentrated
    More Concentrated (taking fluid out leaving solutes behind)
  93. What acts more as a fluid reservoir?

    IFC or EFC
  94. Does ADH affect water retention or loss?
    Water Retention (Produce less urine)
  95. Does Aldosterone affect water retention or loss?
    Water Retention (Produces less urine)
  96. Does ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide) affect water retention or loss?
    Water Loss (Increased Urination)
  97. What are the factors affecting water loss?

    (Hint: 3 things)
    • Excessive Perspiration
    • Inadequate Water Intake
    • Repeated Vomiting Or Diarrhea
  98. What is excessive water loss from diarrhea called?
  99. What factors affect water gain?
    Low BP = secrete ADH & Aldosterone
  100. How would low blood pressure affect water gain?
    Too little fluid
  101. Would you secrete ADH & Aldosterone or ANP during low blood pressure?
    ADH & Aldosterone
  102. What is normal blood pH?
    7.4 (7.35-7.45)
  103. Which ion makes something acidic?
    H+ (Hydrogen)
  104. Which ion makes something a base?
    OH- (Hydroxyl)
  105. What are two symptoms of acidosis?
    • Coma
    • Weak Cardiac Function
  106. What are the symptoms of alkalosis?
    • Jittery
    • Increased heart rate
  107. Is hyperventalation caused by acidosis or alkalosis?
  108. Which is more common acidosis or alkalosis?
  109. If you have too much CO2 are you more acidic or alkalodic?
  110. How does hemoglobin act as a buffer?
    It binds to H+ ions
  111. How would you adjust your breathing to affect acidosis?
    Breathe deeply removing CO2
  112. How would you adjust your breathing to affect alkalosis?

    (Hint: Prevert Calling)
    Breathe Shallow increasing CO2
  113. What drives the need to breathe?
    High CO2
  114. What are the two main disorders?
    Acidosis & Alkalosis
  115. What are the two types of Acidosis?
    Respiratory & Metabolic
  116. What is the most common type of acidosis?

    Respiratory or Metabolic
  117. What is Respiratory Acidosis due to?
    • Failed Chemoreceptors
    • Lowered Ventilation
  118. What causes lowered ventilation?
    • Emphysema
    • Asthma
    • Pneumonia
    • Bronchitis
  119. What is the second most common type of acidosis?

    Respiratory or Metabolic
  120. Which acidosis is the inability to secrete H+?

    Respiratory or Metabolic?
  121. In which acidosis do you suffer severe bicarbonate loss?

    Respiratory or Metabolic
  122. How do you suffer severe bicarbonate loss?
    Diarrhea (Ass-idosis)
  123. What type of Alkalosis is most rare?
  124. What is an example of metabolic alkalosis?
    Repeated Vomiting (HCl)
  125. What is the least developed form of an egg?

    (Most Primative)
  126. What is the most primative form of sperm?
  127. Is there an equal amount of cytoplasm in the first round of meiosis?
  128. What is the smaller cell formed during meiosis?
    Polar Body
  129. What is the product from the first round of meiosis?
    Primary Oocyte
  130. A key characteristic of this is follicular cells are tightly packed around it.
    Primary Oocyte
  131. What is the product from the second round of meiosis?
    Secondary Oocyte
  132. A key characteristic of this is in the whole follicle, the spaces start to open up between the follicular cells and the egg itself
    Secondary Oocyte
  133. What forms the Corpus Luteum?
  134. What are considered the egg itself and the cell tightly packed around them?
    Primary and Secondary Follicle
  135. What hormone stimulates the follicle to mature?
  136. What is considered a huge space?
  137. What is the term for a Mature Follicle?
    Graafian Follicle
  138. Going from primary to secondary to mature is the action of what hormone?
  139. Once the egg ruptures, follicular cells are left behind. What will stimulate the left over follicles to form the Corpus Luteum?
  140. What does the Corpus Luteum secrete?
  141. How many eggs are typically ovulated at one time?
  142. How do you get fraternal twins?
    2 eggs are released
  143. How do you get identical twins?
    1 egg splits
  144. How do you get conjoined twins?
    1 egg doesn't completely split
  145. What is another term for Oocyte?
  146. How many Polar Bodies do we end up with?
  147. Are eggs expensive or cheap to make?
  148. Is sperm expensive or cheap to make?
  149. What does dad donate?
    A nucleus, a few mitochondria and a flagella
  150. What are the 4 steps in Spermatogenesis?
    • Spermatogonia
    • Primary Spermatocyte
    • Spermatids
    • Spermatozoan
  151. Where on the sperm is the acrosome located?
    On the head
  152. What part of the sperm contains enzymes that help fertilize the egg and provide species recognition?
  153. What is the basic anatomy of a sperm cell?
    • Head
    • Midpiece
    • Flagella
  154. What is the head of the sperm?
  155. What is the midpiece of the sperm?
  156. What is the function of flagella?
    Moves the cell
  157. What are seminiferous tubules?
    Immature Sperm
  158. What are epididymis?
    Mature Sperm
  159. How many sperm are created from one spermatogonia?
  160. What are the 4 stages of Oogenesis?
    • Oogonia
    • Primary Oocyte
    • Secondary Oocyte
    • Oocyte
  161. What are some female secondary sexual characteristics?
    • Body Hair
    • Mammary Glands
    • Body Fat Distribution vs Muscle Mass
  162. Do females tend to have a higher water or fat content?
  163. What hormone is responsible for growth and maturation of the endometrium?
  164. What hormone is responsible for smooth muscle contraction and milk ejection?
  165. Which hormone is responsible for the maintenance of male reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics?
  166. In conjuction with progesterone, what decreases production of LH & FSH?
  167. What is defined as the first sight of blood?
  168. The endometrium is developed during what phase?
    Proliferative Phase
  169. Puberty usually strikes at what age?
  170. What can cause early onset of puberty?
  171. What is defined when a menstral cycle becomes more irregular until stopping?
  172. What hormone maintains female reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics?
  173. What is the period during menopause of irrational behavior?
  174. What do follicles secrete?
  175. What stimulates the release of FSH & LH?
  176. At end of proliferation phase, estrogen and progesterone inhibit what?
    FSH & LH
  177. During what phase has the endometrium reach its greatest height of development and is ready for implantation?
    Secretory Phase
  178. What is the mitochondria providing energy to in sperm?
  179. Why would you want to cut the vas deferens?