510 Chapter 11

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510 Chapter 11
2011-04-23 20:47:42
Theories Design Counseling

Study guide for final
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  1. The broad principles that marital partners subscribe to, but are often not aware of, have been described as ______.
  2. Cognitive-behavioral theory is based on behavioral theory but differs from strict behaviorism in that it is also interested in the ______________________.
    meanings behind stimuli and responses
  3. How is cognitive-behaviorism different from strict behaviorism?
    Cognitive-behaviorists endeavor to help their clients understand broader aspects of their problems than just behavior. Cognitive-behaviorists focus on meanings behind stimuli and responses.
  4. All the cognitive-behavioral systems discussed in the textbook share the mediational position, which is that individuals' responses to the environment are mediated by _______________.
    cognitive activity
  5. Which two pioneers in cognitive-behavioral psychology had backgrounds in traditional psychoanalysis?
    Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck
  6. According to cognitive-behavioral theory, an _________ involves behavior, emotion, and thought all rolled into one.
  7. In the terms of Social Cognitive Theory, which of the following is NOT characteristic of the human mind?
  8. According to cognitive-behaviorists, in psychologically healthy human beings
    thinking can override emotional and behavioral impulses.
  9. ______________ are what George Kelly termed the individual response tendencies that become part of our personalities.
    Personal constructs
  10. In Aaron Beck's theory, automaticity refers to
    thoughts that automatically occur without beckoning.
  11. According to cognitivist belief, _____________ can be applied to systematic biases, overcoming maladaptive responses to people and situations.
    conscious control
  12. Which of the following is NOT identified in the text as an indicator of cognitive behaviorists' reverence for scientific method?
    adherence to ethical codes
  13. An essential quality of cognitive-behavioral therapy is its _____________, placing it high on the list of empirically supported treatments.
  14. What is the role of a cognitive-behavioral therapist?
    The therapist takes takes a role of teacher or guide. Therefore, the counselor must be trustworthy and inspire confidence.
  15. What is the primary goal of therapy for a counselor with a cognitive-behavioral orientation?
    The client's development of a new way of thinking, substituted for an old way that has not been working well.
  16. The process of _____________ involves the therapist's serving to help a client discover the underlying emotions of an incident and the evidence for and against such emotion.
    "guided discovery"
  17. How long are cognitive-behavioral counseling relationships?
    Most cognitive-behavioral therapy tends to be brief-from one to 25 sessions.
  18. Who created the cognitive-behavioral approach named Cognitive Therapy?
    Aaron Beck
  19. Who created the cognitive-behavioral approach named Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy?
    Albert Ellis
  20. Which leader in the cognitive-behavioral movement is known for his irreverent and almost belligerent style of working with clients?
    Albert Ellis
  21. What is the basis of Albert Ellis's theory of cognitive-behavioral psychology?
    Human beings are inherently rational, but are also burdened with strong inborn tendencies to think irrationally and create their own poor mental health.
  22. What did Albert Ellis say about emotions, behaviors, and thought?
    Because thinking is usually verbal, what we say to ourselves determines out emotions and behaviors.
  23. Ellis set forth a list of ______ irrational beliefs that lead to unhappiness and emotion.
  24. Which of the following is NOT on Ellis's list of irrational beliefs?
    A person has absolute control over his or her own happiness.
  25. Which of the following is NOT on Albert Ellis's list of irrational beliefs?
    It is easier to do difficult things than it is to avoid them.
  26. What did Albert Ellis say about psychological approaches that explore the client's history of trauma?
    He called the practice of letting a client dwell on his or her past indulgence therapy.
  27. What characterizes the behavior of a counselor when he or she is using REBT?
    humor, confrontation, and being directive
  28. In the REBT system, what occurs between an activating event and a consequence?
    a belief
  29. In the REBT system, what occurs between a disputing intervention and a new feeling?
    an effective new philosophy
  30. In the context of REBT, what is meant by an effective new philosophy?
    The client learns to substitute more adaptive thoughts in place of the beliefs that often involve unrealistic and over-generalized attributions.
  31. Besides questioning and reasoning, REBT counselors prescribe ____________ to combat irrational beliefs.
    behavioral exercises
  32. Although they wrote in the same country and during the same period, Aaron Beck's theory of cognitive-behavioral psychology attracted more attention in the psychological community than that of Albert Ellis because
    Beck's writing was more scholarly and his early efforts were toward curing depression, which had remained beyond behavioral treatment so far.
  33. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the term arbitrary inference?
    Drawing a specific conclusion in the absence of supporting evidence or in the presence of contrary evidence.
  34. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the term selective abstraction?
    Focusing on a detail taken out of context, ignoring other meaningful features of the situation, and labeling the while experience on the basis of a fragment.
  35. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the term overgeneralization?
    Drawing a general conclusion on the basis of one or more isolated incidents and applying the concept across the board to related and unrelated situations.
  36. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the terms magnification and minimization?
    Errors in evaluating the significance or magnitude of an event.
  37. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the term personalization?
    A tendency to relate external events to yourself when there is no basis for making such a connection.
  38. In Beck's list of faults in information processing, what is meant by the term absolutistic dichotomous thinking?
    Placing all experiences in one of two opposite categories, such as flawless or defective, saint or sinner.
  39. What did Beck mean when he used the term core schemas?
    Beliefs that develop from past experiences. They give us consistent ways of looking at situations.
  40. In Beck's model, depressed people are plagued by a __________ of beliefs.
    cognitive triad
  41. What is the basic therapeutic technique in Beck's CT?
    Conducting a Socratic dialog with the client.
  42. Who wrote the book, Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond?
    Judith Beck
  43. Who is credited with conceptualizing SIT (stress inoculation training)?
    Donald Meichenbaum
  44. Donald Meichenbaum was originally trained as a ___________.
  45. What is SIT (stress inoculation training)?
    a flexible, individually tailored, multifaceted form of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  46. What occurs during Meichenbaum's first stage of therapy?
    The counselor and client form a collaborative relationship. The client is encouraged to conceptualize threats and frustrations as problems to be solved or to be faced with adaptive strategies.
  47. What occurs during Meichenbaum's second stage of therapy?
    Coping skills training is tailored to the client's problem. By means of a graded hierarchy of stressful situations, skills are practiced in the clinical setting and then rehearsed in vivo.
  48. What occurs during Meichenbaum's final stage of therapy?
    Clients use their coping skills in increasingly difficult situations. High-risk situations and warning signs are identified in a relapse prevention component.
  49. What is noted in the text as an admirable feature of SIT related to the concept of change?
    Not only individuals need to change but also environments such as institutions, families, and businesses.
  50. Who is credited with originating reality therapy?
    William Glasser
  51. What did Glasser conceptualize as the source of psychological disorder in his reality therapy theory?
    denial of the reality of one's world
  52. The goal of reality therapy is for the client to
    realize that reality not only exists but that the client must fulfill his or her needs within its framework.
  53. In his reality theory, Glasser uses metaphors and terms from cybernetics, which is the understanding of __________ systems.
  54. What are the two basic concepts of reality therapy?
    needs and choice
  55. Which of the following is NOT a basic need conceptualized by William Glasser?
  56. In the context of Glasser's reality therapy, how does the counselor use wants?
    A client's understanding of his or her wants is a major step in reality therapy. Friendly, fair-minded questioning by the counselor helps clarify what the client wants from him or herself and from others.
  57. A time projection question would be an example of which of the types of intervention conceptualized by Glasser?
    direction and doing
  58. In the context of Glasser's reality therapy, how does the counselor use planning?
    The client's thorough evaluation should lead to formulation of a plan for action. Reality therapists encourage a plan that is simple, realistic, measurable, immediate, involved, committed, continuous, and within the client's powers.
  59. What disorder was Linehan's dialectical behavior therapy designed to treat?
    borderline personality disorder
  60. The term __________ describes the interaction of conflicting forces.
  61. What is the major theme of dialectical behavior therapy?
    By fulfilling a one-year commitment to structured weekly therapy sessions and daily homework, the clients learn to become comfortable with change in themselves, others, and the environment.
  62. What term did Linehan introduce to the practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy?
  63. Acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions such as DBT, MBCT, and ACT are known as the ____________ of behavioral and cognitive therapy.
    third wave
  64. __________ is a person's inability to separate an inner or outer event from habitual cognitive processing.
    Cognitive fusion
  65. What is the therapist's role in solution-focused therapy?
    To draw from clients the solution they want and help them create it.
  66. What is the one basic pattern for a solution-focused session?
    A core question-and-answer discourse closing with a five to ten minute summary message.
  67. How are parents seen in Solution-Focused Family Therapy?
    As the experts in regard to their children.