geri test 2.txt

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geri test 2.txt
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  1. Confusion
    • An impairment of mental function
    • Term?
  2. Confusion includes what?
    • This includes: poor judgment, impaired memory, disorientation to time, place, situation or person, disorderly thought process, difficulty making decisions
    • What includes all this?
  3. Possible causes of confusion?
    Possible causes: Dehydration, severe emotional stress, chronic organic mental disorder such as Alzheimer�s disease
  4. Older adults retain on the present or the past more?
    They retain more of the past
  5. What is the Erikson stage that older adults go through?
    • Ego integrity vs despair
    • What stage of adulthood
  6. Confusion always indicates?
    It always indicates an abnormality because of loss of cognitive function is not an expected component of the aging process
  7. What does Alzheimer's disease go hand in hand with?
    Dementia goes with this other disease
  8. Delirium
    An acute brain syndrome, usually temporary and delusions
  9. Where does delirium most likely happen?
    Happens in hospitals because it is a new environment and OA are not situated in their environment
  10. What happens when delirium occurs?
    When this disease occurs activity level is increased or decreased, may fluctuate, and/or may include tremors and spastic movements
  11. What does delirium begin with?
    It begins with confusion, sleep disturbances, and restlessness
  12. What does delirium progress to?
    It progresses to anxiety, delusions, hallucinations or fear
  13. Is delirium reversible or irreversible?
    It is usually reversible
  14. What is delirium previously referred as?
    It is referred to as an acute brain syndrome
  15. Delirium usually cases what?
    It causes an altered level of consciousness
  16. When does delirium occur?
    It occurs as a sudden onset (often hours or days) [ right after giving meds]
  17. What causes delirium?
    Causes: physical illness, diabetic rxn, drug alcohol toxicity, dehydration, malnutrition, head trauma, and sensory deprivation or overload, systemic infection, electrolyte disturbance, stress, severe sleep deprivation
  18. What are two main causes of delirium?
    Sleep deprivation, and sensory deprivation or overload
  19. When does delirium occur? (age)
    Occur at any age, more prevalent to OA
  20. is delirium an expected result of normal aging process?
    No it is not an expected result of normal aging process
  21. Dementia
    A progressive loss of intellectual function most commonly related to Alzheimer�s disease
  22. Is dementia is reversible or irreversible?
    It is irreversible � affects ability to think understand and interact (cognitive function)
  23. Is dementia acute or chronic?
    It is chronic and progressive
  24. What can cause dementia but is rare?
    It is rare but some are caused by nutritional deficiencies or infections which may be reversible (such as dehydration)
  25. Dementia means deterioration of?
    Its deterioration of intellect, memory, judgment, basic math abilities, language and independence
  26. What was dementia formerly referred to as?
    It was formerly referred to as senility or organic brain syndrome
  27. What other conditions mimic dementia?
    Conditions that mimic it are: depression, brain tumors, nutritional deficiencies, head injuries, hydrocephalus, infections ( aids, meningitis, syphilis) drug rxn and thyroid problems
  28. What occurs during the early stages of dementia?
    Early stage: changes are insidious, gradual and cumulative, increasing difficulty with social interactions and functional skills, personality changes occur, exaggerated emotions are common,
  29. Prevalence of dementia increases with?
    Prevalence of this increases with age
  30. Dementia disorientation to?
    This disease is disorientated to: time, place, person
  31. Most common cause of Alzimers disease is?
    Most common cause of it is Dementia
  32. What are other cause of dementia?
    Parkinson�s disease, Pick�s disease, aids, syphilis
  33. Multi-infarct dementia commonly resulting from?
    Commonly resulting from cerebrovascular disease and hypertension
  34. What is the onset of multi-infarct dementia?
    Onset of this is insidious, relentless, or sporadic in nature
  35. Nursing diagnosis for dementia?
    Nursing diagnosis: Impaired verbal communication, knowledge deficit, self care deficit
  36. Dementia usually arises in individuals of age?
    It usually arises in individuals older than 60 yrs of age
  37. Alzheimers disease is sometimes called?
    It is sometimes called senile dementia
  38. Is AD reversible or irreversible?
    It is irreversal
  39. What is the second most common cause of dementia ?
    Multi infarct dementia is the second most cause of it
  40. What types of medications sometimes cause memory loss?
    Narcotics sometimes cause this side effect
  41. Is AD progressive?
    Yes it is progressive
  42. Is AD more common in women or men?
    It is more common in women
  43. What is the usual duration of AD?
    Duration is usually 2-10 yrs but can last up to 20 yrs
  44. Is AD considered a normal outcome of aging?
    No it is not an outcome of normal aging � (progressive brain disorder)
  45. How is AD diagnosed?
    It is diagnosed through process of elimination
  46. Alzheimer�s disease
    Progressive brain disorder in which the brain atrophies,
  47. What is the most definitive diagnosis of AD?
    The most definitive diagnosis of this disease is autopsy
  48. What is the other disease besides Alzheimer�s can be differentiated by autopsy?
    Pick�s disease can be differentiated by autopsy with the other disease
  49. Pick�s disease is a form of what?
    It is a form of dementia which is rare and permanent
  50. Pick's disease is similar to?
    It is similar to AD
  51. How can Pick�s disease be differentiated from AD?
    It can be differentiated from AD by autopsy
  52. What does the brain look like in Pick�s disease
    Brain looks spongy
  53. When is Picks most common occurring?
    It occurs between ages 45-50
  54. What is the survival time for Pick�s disease?
    Survival time form this disease is 7 years
  55. Pathophysiology of Alzheimer�s disease includes?
    Loss of coritical nueorns, neurofibirillary tangles, ventricles are enlarged
  56. What is the average life expectancy with AD is?
    Life expectancy with this disease is usually 8 yrs
  57. AD is grouped into how many stages?
    This disease is grouped into 4 stages
  58. What is seen in the early stage of AD?
    Seen in this stage of a disease: Mild forgetfulness, lack of interest in life, short term memory loss, recognizes a problem exists, increasing frustration and anger, and isolativeness, confabulation, comprised safety, lost interest in attending family functions
  59. confabulation
    Fabricating details of an event
  60. What is seen in the middle stage of AD?
    In this stage of this disease one sees: difficulty with language, with object recognition, and judgment
  61. What is seen in the advanced stage of AD?
    In this stage of this disease one sees: confused day and night, insomnia, poor ADL�s, significant decline in memory, apraxia, increasing aphasia, loss of balance, gait changes, changes in personal relationships
  62. Apraxia
    Problems with purposeful movements
  63. Aphasia
    Problems with language
  64. What is seen in the later or severe stage of AD?
    In this stage of this disease one sees: severe lapses in memory, emotional ability, disorientation to place, person, unable to recognize, rambling speech, incoherent, wanders, gets lost, unable to perform most ADL�s, needs custodial care, motor ability decreases, paranoid, great frustration and anger
  65. What is seen in the Final/terminal stage of AD?
    In this stage of this disease one sees: incapable of self care, total memory loss, anger, hostility and combativeness, ataxia, incontinent of urine and stool, mute or speech unrecognizable, unable to recognize family, friends, extreme physical decline (possibly semicomatose before death), death soon occurs
  66. Ataxia
    Impaired ability to coordinate movement
  67. What are the specific and most common S/S of AD?
    Specific S/S of this disease: memory loss, inability to learn and retain new info, loss of judgment and planning skills, personality and mood changes, decreased reasoning and abstract thinking skills, loss of language skills, inability to care for self
  68. When collecting data for an AD pt the client is usually?
    The client is usually disorientated when they have this disease when collecting data
  69. What meds will stop the progression of AD?
    No meds will stop the progression of this disease
  70. The meds given to a pt with AD are palliative or curative
    The meds given to pt with this disease are palliative
  71. What do the meds to when given to a pt with AD?
    They meds help slow memory impairment when they have this disease?
  72. Aricept
    Name of medication for AD which slows down the progression of it
  73. Cognex
    Slows down the progression of Alzheimer�s disease
  74. What medications slow down the progression of AD?
    Cognex and Aricept
  75. Haldol
    Best medication used for treatments of behavioral problems with elderly clients with AD
  76. Novane, thorazine, mellaril
    3 meds that May help with behavioral issues
  77. Desyrel and prozac
    Two meds that are helpful for s/s of depression
  78. ProSom, doral, dalmane, chloral hydrate and restoril
    5 meds that are taken for insomnia
  79. what is a type of dementia commonly resulting from cerebrovascular disease and hypertention?
    Multi-infarct dementia results from this
  80. Which has a faster onset AD or MID?
    MID is faster than AD for this
  81. MID usually coexists with what other conditions?
    This disease coexists with HTN or CAD with strokes
  82. What disease is difficult to distinguish from AD?
    Parkinson�s disease is hard to distinguish from this other disease
  83. What happens before the onset of dementia?
    Usually a history of tremors prior to the onset of this disease
  84. What are the manifestations of Parkinsons Disease?
    Manifestations of this disease: Tremors, mask-like facial expression, shuffling, propulsive gait, akinesia, and ataxia
  85. Akinesia
    An abnormal state of motor and psychic hypoactivity
  86. What are the four classical signs of Parkinson�s disease?
    Classical signs of this disease: tremor, rigidity (increased muscle tone), bradykinesia (slowing down in execution of movement), and postural instability/impaired postural reflexes
  87. Bradykinesia
    Slowing down in execution of movement
  88. What syndrome is an alcohol related dementia?
    Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
  89. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    Syndrome: Thought to result from direct damage to the brain by alcohol, may be caused by nutritional factors, may result indirectly from damage to the liver, short term memory is more impaired, poor judgment, lack of insight, diminished attention, slowed thinking, and characteristic belligerent behavior patterns make them difficult to care for
  90. What is more impaired with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
    Short term memory is most impaired with this syndrome
  91. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease
    Rare dementia caused by a slow �virus�, infectious dementia that is considered transmissible, long incubation, rapid course, and death almost always occurs within 2 years on onset
  92. Virus
    Incubation period measure in years
  93. What type of disease is infectious dementia that is considered transmissible?
    Creutzfeld-Jakob disease is considered this
  94. What disease almost always causes death within 2 years on onset?
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease causes death with in that time frame
  95. AIDs dementia
    Late stages of aids(not in all pts with AIDS), periods of lucidity may remain until late in disease (differs from AD in that respect)
  96. What is the most common dementia known to be caused by infection?
    AIDS dementia is the most common type to be cause by this
  97. Crack related dementia reversible or irreversible?
    Believed to be irreversible
  98. What are the symptoms of Crack related dementia?
    symptoms of confusion, memory loss and speech disorders, often become violent
  99. metabolic dementia
    occurs after untreated ESRD (end stage renal disease) , hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or hepatic failure
  100. Tests done to test for dementia
    Tests done: CT scan, MRI, PET scan and EEG
  101. Functional assessment related to dementia diagnosis?
    Assessment: The ability to complete activities of ADL�s
  102. What are the ADL�s that are checked for functional assessment for dementia?
    Dressing, bathing and grooming, toileting, bowel and bladder control, ambulation and transfer, eating, and communication skills
  103. Assessment of support system
    AD and other dementias have an impact on the family often greater than the impact of the pt, family and caregiver teaching is vital, access community support to provide opportunity for caregiver to do errands and spend time with children
  104. Respite care
    Allows caregivers time to themselves by having others care for their loved ones on a short term basis, often pts end up in the hospital as a last resort to over burdened families in need
  105. Confusion
    Impairment of mental function, poor judgment, impaired memory, and disorientation
  106. S/S of picks disease?
    S/S: Prominent difficulty with decision making, difficulty with complex tasks, difficulty with language (trouble finding or understanding words or writing)
  107. When does Pick�s disease occur (age wise)?
    It usually occurs at stage of 20, usually begins at 40-60 yo, average begins at 54 yo
  108. Sundowning syndrome
    Syndrome: usually occurs after dinner, where OA becomes agitated and confused
  109. When assessing orientation status what do we check for?
    We check: knows his name, knows where he is, cant state the current date/time, can describe his current situation
  110. Depression
    Experience complaints of memory loss, forgetfulness, inability to concentrate, becomes a threat to psychosocial wellness of the older adults due to underlying cause of illness and suicide
  111. What physiologic changes seen through biopsy or autopsy of AD disease?
    Physiologic changes seen through biopsy or autopsy: Cerebral cortex atrophy, loss of coritical neurons, changes in the brain cells
  112. What specific changes in the brain cell occur for AD disease?
    Brain cell changes: Abnormal neurons, senile plaques, granulovascular degeneration

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