Chem 5, College of the Desert

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  1. Glycoside
    Glycoside: A cyclic acetal formed by reaction of a monosaccharide with an alcohol, accompanied by loss of H20.
  2. Glycosidic Bond
    Glycosidic Bond: Bond between the anomeric carbon atom of a monosaccharide and an -OR group.
  3. Carbohydrate
    Carbohydrate: A member of a large class of naturally occurring polyhydroxy ketones and aldehydes.
  4. Monosaccharide
    Monosaccharide: A carbohydrate with three to seven carbon atoms.
  5. Aldose
    Aldose: A monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde carbonyl group.
  6. Disaccharide
    Disaccharide: A carbohydrate composed of two monosaccarides.
  7. Polysaccharide
    Polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate): A carbohydrate that is a polymer of monosaccharides.
  8. Enantioners
    • Enantioners:
    • O O
    • ll ll
    • H-C H-C
    • H-C-OH HO-C-H
    • HO-C-H H-C-OH
    • H-C-OH HO-C-H
    • H-C-OH HO-C-H
    • H2COH H2COH
    • D-Glucose L-Glucose
  9. Mutorotation
    Mutorotation: Change in rotation of plane-polarized light resulting from the equalibrium between cicylic anomers and the open chain form of a sugar.
  10. Anomeric carbon atom
    Anomeric carbon atom: The hemiacetal Carbon atom in a cycilic sugar; C atom bonded to an -OH group and an O in the ring.
  11. Anomers
    Anomers: Cicylic sugars that differ only in positions of substitution at the hemiacetal carbon (the anomeric carbon); the alpha form has the -OH on the oppisite side from the -CH2OH; the Beta form has the -OH on the same side as the -CH2OH.
  12. 1, 4 Link
    1, 4 Link: A glycosidic link between the hemiacetal hydroxyl group at C1 of one sugar and the hydroxyl group at C4 of another sugar.
  13. L-Sugar
    L-Sugar: Monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing to the left in a Fischer projection.
  14. D-Sugar
    D-Sugar: A monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing to the right in alpha fischer projection.
  15. Reducing Sugar
    Reducing Sugar: A carbohydrate that reacts in basic solution with a mild oxidizing agent.
  16. Ketose
    Ketose: A monosaccharide that contains a ketone carbonyl group.
  17. Diastereomers
    Diastereomers: Stereiosomers that are not mirror images of each other.
  18. Fischer Projection
    Fischer Projection: Structure that represents chiral carbon atoms as the intersections of two lines, with the horizontal lines representing bonds pointing out of the page and the vertical lines representing bonds pointing behind the page. For sugars, the aldehydes or ketones is at the top.
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Chem 5, College of the Desert
2012-05-16 15:34:13
Chapter22 Chem5

Chemistry 5, College of the Desert;
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