Chem 5, College of the Desert
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Glycoside: A cyclic acetal formed by reaction of a monosaccharide with an alcohol, accompanied by loss of H20.
Glycosidic Bond: Bond between the anomeric carbon atom of a monosaccharide and an -OR group.
Carbohydrate: A member of a large class of naturally occurring polyhydroxy ketones and aldehydes.
Monosaccharide: A carbohydrate with three to seven carbon atoms.
Aldose: A monosaccharide that contains an aldehyde carbonyl group.
Disaccharide: A carbohydrate composed of two monosaccarides.
Polysaccharide (complex carbohydrate): A carbohydrate that is a polymer of monosaccharides.
- O O
- ll ll
- H-C H-C
- H-C-OH HO-C-H
- HO-C-H H-C-OH
- H-C-OH HO-C-H
- H-C-OH HO-C-H H2COH H2COH
- D-Glucose L-Glucose
Mutorotation: Change in rotation of plane-polarized light resulting from the equalibrium between cicylic anomers and the open chain form of a sugar.
Anomeric carbon atom
Anomeric carbon atom: The hemiacetal Carbon atom in a cycilic sugar; C atom bonded to an -OH group and an O in the ring.
Anomers: Cicylic sugars that differ only in positions of substitution at the hemiacetal carbon (the anomeric carbon); the alpha form has the -OH on the oppisite side from the -CH2OH; the Beta form has the -OH on the same side as the -CH2OH.
1, 4 Link
1, 4 Link: A glycosidic link between the hemiacetal hydroxyl group at C1 of one sugar and the hydroxyl group at C4 of another sugar.
L-Sugar: Monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing to the left in a Fischer projection.
D-Sugar: A monosaccharide with the -OH group on the chiral carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group pointing to the right in alpha fischer projection.
Reducing Sugar: A carbohydrate that reacts in basic solution with a mild oxidizing agent.
Ketose: A monosaccharide that contains a ketone carbonyl group.
Diastereomers: Stereiosomers that are not mirror images of each other.
Fischer Projection: Structure that represents chiral carbon atoms as the intersections of two lines, with the horizontal lines representing bonds pointing out of the page and the vertical lines representing bonds pointing behind the page. For sugars, the aldehydes or ketones is at the top.
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