Biology exam IV

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  1. Phototropism
    Plants bend towards light
  2. Far red light
    shade conditions
  3. Blue light
    sunny conditions
  4. Photoperiod
    reletive llength of day and night
  5. Short day (long night) plants
    minimum hours of night for flowering
  6. Long day (short night) plants
    maximum number of hours of night for flowering
  7. Day-neutral plants
    mature regardless of photoperiod
  8. Hormone
    molecule that regulates developemental process
  9. Auxin (indole acetic acid)
    • Stimulate cell elongation in shoot
    • Hinders cell elongation in root
  10. shoot elongation
    auxin accumulates on shaded side of shoot, elongating those cells
  11. Path of Auxin
    Auxin always travels down the plant
  12. Polar
    Axuin always travels downwards
  13. Gravitropism
    Auxin regulates the downward growth of roots
  14. Leaf abscision
    loss of leafs in deciduous trees
  15. Abscision layer
    consisting of weak, colorless, thin-walled cells that allow the leaf to separate easily when a gust of wind comes along
  16. carotenoids
    • yellow and orange hue of leaves
    • chloroplast break down
  17. anthocyanin
    • red and purple hue
    • sugar concentration
  18. Virulent
    the ability of a pathogen to overcome the immune system of its host
  19. Hypersensative response (HR)
    Inital, localized response to a pathogen
  20. Pathogenesis-related loci (PR)
    protect tissues distant from the inital site of infection
  21. Systematic Aquired resistance (SAR)
    production of protective compounds throught the plant
  22. Plant physical defenses (against herbivores)
    thorn, spines,
  23. Biochemical defense of plants
    • proteinase inhibitors
    • poison
  24. Protienase inhibitors
    shut down digestive proteins
  25. ovary
    part of the carpel that contains the ovules
  26. Pericarp
    • ovary wall developes into protective structure
    • encloses the seed
    • aides in dispersal
  27. Zygote
    • fertalized ovule
    • formed by fussion of sperm and egg
  28. Triploid Endosperm
    formed by fusion of two polar nuclei
  29. Fertalized ovule becomes_____
  30. Zygote becomes_____
    embryo/ developing plant
  31. Endosperm becomes____
    • nutritional tissue
    • (fruit)
  32. Outermost layer of ovule becmes_____
    protective seed coat
  33. FLower is composed of 4 parts
    • sepal
    • petal
    • stamen
    • carpel
  34. stamen composed of two parts
    • filament
    • anther
  35. Microsporophytes
    diploid cells inside the anther
  36. Microsporophytes undergo___ to form___ ____ microspores
    • meiosis
    • 4
    • haploid
  37. Microspores undergo ____ to form ___ _____
    • mitosis
    • male
    • gametophytes
  38. pollen grain
    male gametophyte
  39. generative cell
    immiture pollen grains
  40. Tube cell
    large vegitative cell
  41. generative cells form___
    4 sperm
  42. carpel made up of 3 parts
    • stigma
    • style
    • ovary
  43. Stigma (function)
    specialized for reciving pollen
  44. style (function)
    supports stigma
  45. Ovary
    contains developing ovules
  46. after fertilization, ovary becomes___
    the fruit
  47. ovule contains single____
  48. Micropyle
    narrow canal in ovule covering
  49. megasporocyte undergoes__ to form ___ ____ ___
    • meiosis
    • 4
    • haploid
    • megaspores
  50. megaspore divides ___ times to create____ _____
    • 3
    • 8
    • nuclei
  51. female gametophyte contains___ and ____
    • egg
    • 2 polar nuclei
  52. Polar nuclei
    center of the female gametophyte
  53. self compatable flowers
    can pollinate themelves
  54. self-incompatable flowers
    require pollen from a different plant
  55. Pollen tube
    tube formed by a pollen grain that conveys the sperm nuclei to the female gametophyte
  56. double fertilization
    one sperm nuclei fuses with the egg to form a zygote, the other sperm fuses witht the two polar nuclei to form the tripoloid endosperm
  57. endosperm
    triploid tissue in the seed of the plant that provides nutrients to the developing embryo
  58. basal cell
    • bottem daughter cell formed when a zygote divides for the first time
    • divides to form a single row of cells
  59. Terminal cell
    • top daughter cell formed when zygote divides for the first time
    • parent cell of al cells in the embryo
  60. Cotyledon
    a small leaf of plant embryo, used for storing and digesting nutrients and/or early photosynthesis
  61. Eudicot plant has ___ cotyledons
  62. monocot plant has ___ cotyledon
  63. Hypotcotyl
    • stem of mature plant embryo
    • region between cotyledon and radicle
  64. radicle
    embryotic root
  65. cotyledon
    embryotic leaf
  66. biome
    any of the worlds major ecosytems classified according to the predominent vegitation and charactization by adaptation of organisms to tha particular environment
  67. on land, biomes are mainly shaped by ___
  68. Hadley cell
    a pattern of global atmospheric circulation that controls the climate in tropics and sub-tropics
  69. Rain shadow
    region of reduced rainfall on the leeward side of high mountain ranges
  70. Carrying capicity
    maximum number of individual in a population that can be supported in a particular habitat in a sustained period of time
  71. Mark-recapture
    sampling technique used for determining wildlife population density.
  72. Sample plot method
    counting all the organisms in selected plots of known size, then extrapolating to estimate the size of the entire population.
  73. symbiosis includes 4 types of relationships
    • predation
    • mutualism
    • commensalism
    • parasitism
  74. the highest expected species richness is predicted on ____ islands ____ to sources of potential colonists
    • large
    • close
  75. the colonization rate is higher on___ and ___islands than on far and large islands
    • near
    • small
  76. Biogeography
    The study of the past and present distribution of species.

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Biology exam IV
2011-05-12 13:50:02

Part I
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