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The study of individual genes, including the impact of individual genes on relatively rare disorders.
The study of all genes in the human genome, including the study of interactions among genes and interactions between genes and the environment
DNA contains the instructions within the cells for.....?
What are some of the current aims of investigation, now that the Human Genome Project is finished?
- look at variation of DNA as inherited or contributing to disease and drug response
- Improve methods and approaches of the legal, ethical, and social implications of genomics
A communication process that deals with human problems associated with the occurrence, or the risk of occurrence, of a genetic disorder in a family
Broader than genetic counseling; includes information gathering, information sharing and value-neutral counseling.
Where are genes located?
- The vast majority of genes are located in the cell nucleus, but genes are also present in the mitochondria (power plants) of cells.
- **ON CHROMOSOMES
What are chromosomes made out of?
- histones (a basic protien)
- nonhistones (acidic protien)
- small amt of RNA
The RNA that recieves information from DNA and serves as a template for protien synthesis is....
The RNA that is the site of protien synthesis and one of the structural components of ribosomes is....
The RNA that is clover-leaf shaped and brings amino acids to the mRNA and gueds them into position during protien synthesis is....
- transfer RNA
- **aka mitochondrial chromosomes
Purine bases of DNA and RNA
Adenine and Guanine
Pyrimidine bases of DNA
Cytosine and Thymine
Pyrimidine bases of RNA
Cytosine and Uracil
Protiens are produced in two major steps:
- Transcription: Messanger RNA is created to transfer DNA informtion. Travels outside of the body of the cell to the cytoplasm where ribsomes manufactures proteins
- Translation: Ribsomes read the 3 letter words or “codons.” Transfer RNA helps shape and form proteins which dictate the protein’s particular bodily function
How many genes are there in the human genome?
a segment of DNA that encodes a single protein
The coding region of a gene
The non coding region of a gene
Genes located close together on the same chromosome are said to be...
homologous copies of a gene
When each of two alleles present is expressed
having one copy of a particular gene
observable expression of a specific trait/charachteristic
Each chromosome has 2 arms. The arm above the centromere is known as ? and the arm below the centromer is ?
- short arm (p arm)
- long arm (q arm)
- the process of somatic cell division, whereby growth of the organism occurs, the embryo develops from the fertilized egg , and cells normally repair and replace themselves
- **results in 2 daughter cells that are exact replicas of the parent cell
- The process of germ cell division in which the end result is the production of haploid gametes from one diploid germ cell
- literally a reduction in size to a haploid number in the gamete. Genetic exchange occurs between homologous chromsomes
What is a structural chromosomal abnormality
Chromosomal material can break off and attach itself to another chromosome, a process called translocation.