Genetics 1

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NurseNatalie
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81415
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Genetics 1
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2011-04-24 11:36:31
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  1. The study of individual genes, including the impact of individual genes on relatively rare disorders.
    Genetics
  2. The study of all genes in the human genome, including the study of interactions among genes and interactions between genes and the environment
    genomics
  3. DNA contains the instructions within the cells for.....?
    Protien Production
  4. What are some of the current aims of investigation, now that the Human Genome Project is finished?
    • look at variation of DNA as inherited or contributing to disease and drug response
    • Improve methods and approaches of the legal, ethical, and social implications of genomics
  5. A communication process that deals with human problems associated with the occurrence, or the risk of occurrence, of a genetic disorder in a family
    Genetic Counseling
  6. Broader than genetic counseling; includes information gathering, information sharing and value-neutral counseling.
    Genetic Evaluation
  7. Where are genes located?
    • The vast majority of genes are located in the cell nucleus, but genes are also present in the mitochondria (power plants) of cells.
    • **ON CHROMOSOMES
  8. What are chromosomes made out of?
    • DNA
    • histones (a basic protien)
    • nonhistones (acidic protien)
    • small amt of RNA
  9. The RNA that recieves information from DNA and serves as a template for protien synthesis is....
    Messenger RNA
  10. The RNA that is the site of protien synthesis and one of the structural components of ribosomes is....
    Ribosomal RNA
  11. The RNA that is clover-leaf shaped and brings amino acids to the mRNA and gueds them into position during protien synthesis is....
    • transfer RNA
    • **aka mitochondrial chromosomes
  12. Purine bases of DNA and RNA
    Adenine and Guanine
  13. Pyrimidine bases of DNA
    Cytosine and Thymine
  14. Pyrimidine bases of RNA
    Cytosine and Uracil
  15. Protiens are produced in two major steps:
    • Transcription: Messanger RNA is created to transfer DNA informtion. Travels outside of the body of the cell to the cytoplasm where ribsomes manufactures proteins
    • Translation: Ribsomes read the 3 letter words or “codons.” Transfer RNA helps shape and form proteins which dictate the protein’s particular bodily function
  16. How many genes are there in the human genome?
    30,000
  17. a segment of DNA that encodes a single protein
    gene
  18. Exon
    The coding region of a gene
  19. Intron
    The non coding region of a gene
  20. Genes located close together on the same chromosome are said to be...
    linked
  21. Alleles
    homologous copies of a gene
  22. Codominant
    When each of two alleles present is expressed
  23. Hemizygous
    having one copy of a particular gene
  24. Phenotype
    observable expression of a specific trait/charachteristic
  25. Each chromosome has 2 arms. The arm above the centromere is known as ? and the arm below the centromer is ?
    • short arm (p arm)
    • long arm (q arm)
  26. Mitosis
    • the process of somatic cell division, whereby growth of the organism occurs, the embryo develops from the fertilized egg , and cells normally repair and replace themselves
    • **results in 2 daughter cells that are exact replicas of the parent cell
  27. Meiosis:
    • The process of germ cell division in which the end result is the production of haploid gametes from one diploid germ cell
    • literally a reduction in size to a haploid number in the gamete. Genetic exchange occurs between homologous chromsomes
  28. What is a structural chromosomal abnormality
    Chromosomal material can break off and attach itself to another chromosome, a process called translocation.

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