PSY 100 Exam #4.txt

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PSY 100 Exam #4.txt
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  1. algorithm
    A set of steps that, if followed correctly, will eventually solve the problem.
  2. availability heuristic
    Judging the likelihood or probability of an event based on how readily available other instances of the event are in memory.
  3. cognition
    Mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge.
  4. concepts
    Mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics (e.g., the concept of a river groups together the Nile, the Amazon, and the Mississippi because they share the common characteristic of being a large stream of water that empties into an ocean or lake).
  5. confirmation bias
    Preferring information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence.
  6. convergent thinking
    Narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer (e.g., standard academic tests generally require convergent thinking).
  7. creativity
    The ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way.
  8. divergent thinking
    Thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas; a major element of creativity (e.g., finding as many uses as possible for a paper clip).
  9. functional fixedness
    Tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usual or customary way.
  10. heuristic
    Strategies, or simple rules, used in problem solving and decision making that do not guarantee a solution but offer a likely shortcut to it.
  11. mental image
    Mental representation of a previously stored sensory experience, including visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, or gustatory imagery (e.g., visualizing a train and hearing its horn).
  12. mental set
    The ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way.
  13. prototypes
    A representations of the �best� or most typical example of a category (e.g., baseball is a prototype of the concept of sports).
  14. representativeness heuristic
    Estimating the probability of something based on how well the circumstances match (or represent) our previous prototype.
  15. Carrie is talking with her neighbor while simultaneously sweeping the porch and supervising her young daughter's play in the yard. Which area of the brain is MOST involved in such multi-tasking?
    prefrontal cortex
  16. Albert Einstein once said that his first insight into relativity theory occurred when he pictured a beam of light and imagined himself chasing after it at its own speed. He was describing a:
    mental image
  17. Jamie has learned in her biology class that a mammal is any warm-blooded vertebrate characterized by both a covering of hair on the skin and mammary glands (in females) for nourishing the offspring. This definition is an example of:
    an artifical concept
  18. Maguire is in the third grade and has realized that he can solve the problem of 2 x 3 by adding 2 + 2 + 2. This is an example of:
    an algorithm
  19. Christina continues to look for a romantic interest at singles bars even though this strategy has led to disappointment in the past. This is an example of:
    mental set
  20. Marcus has decided to build a tool shed. He has asked his neighbor for advice on specific aspects of the job. He has bought blueprints and other materials necessary for this project. After a week of preparation, he is ready to build. This is an example of which type of problem solving?
    working backward
  21. Robert needs to write a term paper for his humanities class. He chooses a topic and uses the library and Internet to locate information related to his topic. He then organizes the information, writes an outline, reviews the paper, rewrites it, reviews it again, and finally submits it. By breaking down the problem into a series of steps, he is using which type of problem solving?
    creating subgoals
  22. Michael is running for a local political position and readily accepts opinion polls that support his political views and ignore those that conflict with his viewpoints. Michael's tendency is called ____________________.
    confirmation bias
  23. In developing the light bulb, Thomas Edison tried literally hundreds of materials to find one that would heat to the point of glowing white heat without burning up. This is an example of which aspect of creative thinking?
    fluency
  24. Monica is studying for her spelling test. She knows that for each word there is only one correct spelling. This is an example of:
    convergent thinking
  25. According to Sternberg and Lubart, creative people are willing to champion ideas that they feel have potential but that most people think are worth little. They have the ability to build unpopular ideas into supported and high valued ideas and then often move onto other unpopular but promising projects. This theory is called the:
    investment theory
  26. According to investment theory, which of the following is a resource for creativity?
    • intellectual ability
    • knowledge of the problem
    • motivation
  27. Which of the following statements is FALSE ? [A. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that our vocabulary determines how we perceive and categorize the world around us.
    • B. Most research supports the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
    • C. People who are bilingual report feeling a different sense of self depending on the language they are using.
    • D. All of the above statements are true.]
    • B. Most research supports the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
  28. Maria is a newborn infant. Her mother has learned through trial and error that Maria has several distinct patterns of crying that reflect whether she is hungry, angry, or in pain. What term MOST accurately describes Maria's stage of language development?
    prelinguistic stage
  29. When we see flying animals, we quickly identify them as birds because we compare these animals to a �model bird,� such as a sparrow. This model is an example of:
    prototype
  30. Lisa is seeking advice from friends about how to choose a major. Her friends suggest taking a variety of classes covering different subjects and doing volunteer work in the summer to see what academic and occupational areas she likes and dislikes. This method of problem solving uses:
    heuristics
  31. Lynn wanted a birdbath for her front yard but did not want the expense of buying a new one. She looked around the garage, found some old, chipped flowerpots, and came up with an idea. She turned the pots upside down and stacked them to form a column. She then placed a wide, shallow planter on top to hold the water. Lynn has overcome:
    functional fixedness
  32. Carmella would like to lose weight. She begins by asking her doctor for advice on how to begin. She then reads articles that summarize data from weight loss studies. She compares the habits of successful dieters to her own daily habits and makes adjustments in her lifestyle to help her reach her goal. This is an example of which type of problem solving?
    means-end analysis
  33. Leanne is interested in politics and world affairs. She has a tendency to seek out and pay attention only to information that supports her own beliefs while ignoring or discounting evidence that challenges her beliefs. What type of barrier to problem solving is exemplified?
    confirmation bias
  34. While developing the light bulb, Thomas Edison could not find a long-lasting material, so he thought of heating the material in a vacuum. This shift in problem solving strategy was key to the development of a working light bulb. Which aspect of creativity does this example best represent?
    flexibility
  35. Ryan's neighbor asks him if he wants the bricks left over from building her garage. Ryan stacks the bricks onto his property but is unsure exactly what he will do with them. By the next day, he has generated a list of possible uses. This is an example of:
    divergent thinking
  36. Which of the following tests focus on measuring divergent thinking?
    • The Anagrams Test
    • The Unusual Uses Test
  37. Which of the following items would MOST likely appear on a test measuring creativity?
    Rearrange the letter "pleoajkllsapnt" to create as many new words as possible
  38. A ____________ is a mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics.
    concept
  39. A _____________ is a representation of the �best,� or most typical, example of a category.
    prototype
  40. ________________ refers to the tendency to seek out and pay attention only to information that confirms preexisting positions or beliefs while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence.
    confirmation bias
  41. babbling
    Vowel/consonant combinations that infants begin to produce at about 4 to 6 months of age.
  42. cooing
    Vowel-like sounds infants produce beginning around 2 to 3 months of age.
  43. Grammar
    Rules that specify how phonemes, morphemes, words, and phrases should be combined to express thoughts.
  44. language
    Form of communication using sounds and symbols combined according to specified rules.
  45. language acquisition device (LAD)
    According to Chomsky, an innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language and extract the basic rules of grammar.
  46. morphemes
    Smallest meaningful unit of language, formed from a combination of phonemes.
  47. Overextension
    Overly broad use of a word to include objects that do not fit the word's meaning (e.g., calling all men �Daddy�).
  48. overgeneralize
    Applying the basic rules of grammar even to cases that are exceptions to the rule (e.g., saying �mans� instead of �men�).
  49. Phonemes
    Smallest basic unit of speech or sound.
  50. semantics
    Meaning, or the study of meaning, derived from words and word combinations.
  51. Syntax
    Two- or three-word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words.
  52. telegraphic speech
    Two- or three-word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words.
  53. The English language can be broken down into about 40 basic units of speech or sound that are called ________________.
    phonemes
  54. English speakers place adjectives before the noun, as in �my precious love.� However, depending on the intended meaning, Italian speakers sometimes place the adjective before the noun and sometimes after. This is an example in the differences in __________ between English and Italian speakers.
    syntax
  55. Kristi is a two-month-old baby who makes vowel-like sounds, such as �ooooh� and �aaaah.� Which term most accurately describes this behavior?
    cooing
  56. Sage is fourteen months old. At the petting zoo, he points to a rabbit and yells, �Kitty!� This is an example of which of following?
    overextension
  57. Which of the following is involved in the processing and production of language?
    • Broca's area
    • supramarginal gyrus
  58. Phonemes are combined to form the smallest meaningful units of language that are called ____________.
    morphemes
  59. A system of using words to create meaning is referred to as ______________.
    semantic
  60. Keifer is being potty-trained. When he needs to use the bathroom, he says �Me go potty!� Which term most accurately describes this type of speech
    telegraphic speech
  61. Lakena is a five-month-old baby who has begun to add consonants to her vowels and produces sounds such as �bahbahbah.� Which term most accurately describes this behavior?
    babbling
  62. Which of the following suggests that humans most easily learn language between birth and puberty, which is a time when the brain is becoming increasingly specialized, and that if learning does not occur during this special time, it may be impossible to later �catch up?�
    sensitive period hypothesis
  63. Which theorist identified eight distinct, independent forms of intelligence and suggested that the value of these intelligences may change according to culture?
    Howar Gardener
  64. A ___________ is the smallest meaningful unit of language formed from a combination of phonemes.
    morpheme
  65. __________ refers to rules that specify how phonemes, morphemes, words, and phrases should be combined to express thoughts.
    grammar
  66. The choosing of words according to the meaning we want to convey is known as _________________.
    semantics
  67. ______________ speech refers to the two- or three- word sentences of young children that contain only the most necessary words.
    telegraphic
  68. Concrete operational stage
    Piaget's 3rd stage (7-11); the child can perform mental operations on concrete objects and understand reversibility and conversation, but abstract thinking is not yet present
  69. Egocentrism
    The inability to consider another's point of view, which Piaget considered a hallmark of the preoperational stage
  70. Sensorimotor stage
    Piaget's 1st stage (2), in which schemas are developed through sensory and motor activities
  71. Conservation
    Understanding that certain physical characteristics (such as volume) remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes
  72. Preoperational stage
    Piaget's 2nd stage (2-7), characterized by the ability to employ significant language and to think symbolically, but the child lacks operations (reversible mental processes), and thinking is egocentric and animistic
  73. Assimilation
    Piaget's theory, absorbing new information into existing schemas
  74. Accomodation
    Automatic adjustment of the eye, which occurs when muscles change the shape of the lens so that it focuses light on the retina from objects in different distances
  75. Object permanence
    Piaget's term for an infan't understanding that objects (or people) continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched directly
  76. Formal operational stage
    Piaget's 4th stage (11+), characterized by abstract and hypothetical thinking
  77. Schemas
    Cognitive structures or patterns consisting of a number of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experience
  78. Karen is a little girl who plays the flute. Her band instructor would like her to also play the piccolo. Karen learns that the fingerings that she must use to produce the notes on the piccolo are the same as for the flute, but she must change her hand position and learn to blow into the piccolo in a different way. This is an example of:
    accomodation
  79. Amy is seven months old and has mastered the art of crawling. She eagerly explores her environment every day by looking at objects, touching them, and placing them into her mouth. Amy is in which of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
    sensorimotor stage
  80. Six-month-old Patti is playing a game with her father. He takes her rattle and hides it under cup so that it cannot be directly seen. Patti reaches for the cup and removes it to retrieve her rattle. This example demonstrates that Patti has achieved:
    object permanence
  81. Three-year-old Jennifer wants two candy bars, but her mother tells her that she can only have one. When Jennifer becomes upset, her mother breaks the candy bar in half, and Jennifer becomes happy thinking that she now has twice as much candy. Jennifer is in which stage of cognitive development?
    preoperational stage
  82. Dillon is three years old and repeatedly interrupts his mother when she is talking on the phone. He often stands in front of the television blocking the view of others. These behaviors are examples of:
    egocentrism
  83. When Samir and his mother arrive at the store, Samir comments to his mother that the car needs to rest while they are shopping because it �ran a long way.� This is an example of:
    animism
  84. Seven-year-old Rajeev is shown two identical glasses, each containing the same amount of liquid. The liquid is poured from one of these glasses into a taller, thinner one. When asked which one has more, Rajeev correctly states that each glass has an identical amount. Rajeev has shown that he understands:
    • the concept of conservation
    • the concept of reversibility
  85. Eight-year-old Kirsten is shown two identical balls of clay. She watches as one ball is flattened and is asked which one has more. She correctly states that both have the same amount clay although they are obviously different in appearance. Kirsten is in which stage of cognitive development?
    concrete operational stage
  86. Five-year-old Shannon is shown two identical balls of clay. She acknowledges that both balls have the same amount of clay. She watches as one ball is flattened and is then asked which one has more. She incorrectly states that the long, flattened one now has more clay. Shannon is most likely in which stage of cognitive development?
    preoperational stage
  87. Allison is thirteen years old and spends a lot of time thinking about the possibilities for her future. She is capable of thinking logically, constructing well-reasoned arguments, and solving simple logic problems. She is in which stage of cognitive development?
    formal operational stage
  88. Franklin is sixteen and sometimes drives after drinking alcohol. He acknowledges that �people shouldn't drink and drive because they might get caught or wreck their car� but does not think that these consequences could possibly happen to him. This is an example of:
    personal fable
  89. Puneet is self-conscious when he walks into his high school class because he is certain that everyone is scrutinizing and judging him. This is an example of:
    imaginary audience
  90. Cognitive structures or patterns that consist of a number of organized ideas that grow and differentiate with experience are called:
    schemas
  91. _____________ is the process of absorbing new information into existing schemas.
    assimilationa
  92. Which of the following are criticisms of Piaget's theory that are supported by research?
    • Piaget may have underestimated young children's cognitive abilities
    • Piaget's model has been criticized for not sufficiently taking into account genetic and cultural differences.
  93. ________ ____________ is the Piagetian term for an infant's understanding that objects or people continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched directly.
    Object permanence
  94. ___________ is the inability to consider another's point of view which Piaget considered a hallmark of the preoperational stage.
    egocentrism
  95. ___________ is the understanding that certain physical characteristics remain unchanged even when their outward appearance changes.
    conservation
  96. attachment
    A strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time.
  97. developmental psychology
    Study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death.
  98. imprinting
    A strong affectional bond with special others that endures over time.
  99. When a new babysitter attempts to interact with one-year-old Kyle, he pulls away from her and toward his mother. When his mother leaves the room, Kyle shows distress and welcomes her when she returns. According to Ainsworth, Kyle is most likely to have formed which type of attachment?
    secure
  100. Sammy is 11 months old, and his mother tends to be aloof and distant. Sammy rarely seeks contact with her and responds to her in the same way that he responds to strangers. When his mother leaves the room, he rarely cries. Sammy is most likely to have formed which type of attachment?
    avoidant
  101. Ainsworth found that infants with an anxious/ambivalent attachment style tend to have which type of caregiver?
    inconsistent caregivers whose responses to their infants alternate between strong affection and indifference
  102. Tommy's father does not seem to be very interested in actively parenting his son. Tommy's father ignores repeated phone calls from a concerned teacher regarding Tommy's behavioral problems in the classroom. He tends to ignore his son and does not know much about his interests or friends. He rarely disciplines Tommy or sets limits for his behavior. Which of the following terms best describes his parenting style?
    permissive-indifferent
  103. Katie's mother showers her daughter with praise and positive attention but does not set or enforce rules. Katie tends to be immature for her age, and other adults describe her as being rather spoiled and �out of control.� Which of the following terms best describes this parenting style?
    permissive-indulgent
  104. Aisha's parents are sensitive and attentive and set reasonable limits. They encourage her to try new things. They play with her and encourage responsible, age-appropriate behavior. Which type of parenting style is this?
    authoritative
  105. Harlow & Zimmerman's research demonstrated that:
    contact comfort is a powerful contributor to attachment.
  106. Cindy is an infant who cries and screams loudly when her mother leaves the room, seeks contact with her when she comes back, and then squirms angrily to get away from her. Cindy is most likely to have formed which type of attachment?
    anxious/ambivalent
  107. Which of following statements regarding Hazan and Shaver's research is FALSE? [A. Adults who had an avoidant pattern in infancy tend to be uncomfortable with intimacy as adults. B. Anxious/ambivalent adults tend to be obsessed with their partners, fearing their intense love will not be reciprocated. C. Percentages for adult attachments styles show that 55% of adults have a secure attachment style. D. Early attachment style determines adult attachment style.]
    D. Early attachment style determines adult attachment style.
  108. Daniel's mother tends to be punitive. She does not explain the reasons for rules but demands unquestioning obedience. She often places unrealistic expectations on him and expects him to be more mature than is appropriate for his young age. She is easily upset and moody, and punishes him harshly. Daniel's mother most likely has which type of parenting style?
    authoritarian
  109. Achievement motivation
    Desire to excel, especially in competition with others.
  110. anorexia nervosa
    Severe loss of weight resulting from self-imposed starvation and an obsessive fear of obesity.
  111. arousal theory
    Organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal.
  112. bulimia nervosa
    Consuming large quantities of food (bingeing), followed by vomiting, extreme exercise, and/or laxative use (purging).
  113. drive-reduction theory
    Motivation begins with a physiological need (a lack or deficiency) that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need; once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases.
  114. Emotion
    A subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running).
  115. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's theory that some motives (such as physiological and safety needs) must be met before going on to higher needs (such as belonging and self-actualization).
  116. homeostasis
    A body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant internal temperature.
  117. incentive theory
    Motivation results from external stimuli that �pull� the organism in certain directions.
  118. instincts
    Fixed response patterns that are unlearned and found in almost all members of a species.
  119. Motivation
    Set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal.
  120. amygdala
    Area of the brain's limbic system involved in emotional responses.
  121. Cannon�Bard theory
    Arousal, behavior, and emotions occur simultaneously; in this view, all emotions are physiologically similar.
  122. facial-feedback hypothesis
    Movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions.
  123. James�Lange theory
    Emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression (�I feel sad because I'm crying�); in this view, each emotion is physiologically distinct.
  124. Schachter's two-factor theory
    Emotions result from physical arousal and cognitive labeling (or interpretation) of that arousal based on external cues.
  125. Jim's girlfriend hid behind the pantry door and jumped out at him as he came into the room. Jim jumped and shouted before he realized that it was not a real threat. Which of the following statements best explains this startled response?
    The sensory information traveled directly to the limbic system before the cortex could interpret or intervene in the response.
  126. Lynn smiles and laughs much more often than her husband Mike. What is the likely to be true about their relationships with other people?
    Strangers respond more positively to Lynn
  127. Melba and Bill are studying psychology in Melba's apartment. Melba becomes very afraid when a mouse runs out from beneath her refrigerator. Bill laughs and says, �You are afraid because you are trembling.� He is using which theory to explain how her fear is produced?
    James-Lange theory
  128. Dr. Amalfi, a psychologist, is driving and must swerve to miss a deer that suddenly appears in the road. He believes that his fear, trembling, and facial expressions all occurred at the same time. He is explaining his reaction using which theory?
    the Cannon-Bard theory
  129. Linda is in a bad mood and really does not want to go to work at a clothing store. However, once she arrives at work, she spends time smiling and greeting customers and notices that her mood has improved. Which of the following would suggest that Linda's mood has improved because she has been smiling?
    the facial-feedback hypothesis
  130. When Barbara cried at her son's wedding, she interpreted her emotion as joy, but when she cried at her uncle's funeral, she interpreted her emotion as grief. Which explanation of emotion best explains Barbara's different interpretations of the same physiological response?
    Schachter's two-factor theory
  131. Which of the following limbic structures is involved in recognizing and controlling emotions particularly when the �fight-or-flight� response is engaged?
    • hypothalamus
    • amygdala
  132. Which of the following statements about smiling is TRUE? [A. A Duchenne smile is a �fake� smile. B. A smile of real pleasure causes eye muscles to contract. In a fake smile, the eye muscles do not contract. C. People cannot tell the difference between a genuine smile and a fake smile and therefore, respond the same to each. D. All of the above statements are TRUE.]
    B. A smile of real pleasure causes eye muscles to contract. In a fake smile, the eye muscles do not contract.
  133. Which of the following statements is FALSE? [A. Darwin proposed that freely expressing an emotion intensifies it while suppressing outward expression of an emotion diminishes it. B. Recent research suggests that watching another person's facial expressions causes an automatic reciprocal change in our own facial muscles. C. The automatic mimicry of the facial expressions of others occurs only with the participant's conscious awareness. D. All of the above statements are FALSE.]
    C. The automatic mimicry of the facial expressions of others occurs only with the participant's conscious awareness.
  134. Which of the following states that movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions?
    the facial-feedback hypothesis
  135. The ________ - ____________ theory suggests that arousal, cognitions, and expression of emotions occur simultaneously. In this view, all emotions are physiologically similar.
    Cannon-Bard
  136. Schachter's _______-_________ theory suggests that emotions result from physical arousal and a cognitive labeling or interpretation of that arousal that is based on external cues.
    two-factor
  137. factor analysis
    Statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data.
  138. five-factor model (FFM)
    Trait theory of personality that includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
  139. personality
    Unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  140. Trait
    Relatively stable personal characteristics that can be used to describe someone.
  141. Melissa visits a Tarot card reader who tells her some very generalized, flattering things. Melissa ignores any of the information that does not fit with her self-concept and believes the information to be very accurate. This example contains which of the following logical fallacies?
    • self-serving bias
    • the barnum effect
    • the fallacy of positive instances
  142. Kayla is an artist who is known for her original work. She enjoys learning about other cultures and also enjoys foreign films and travel. According to this description, she would tend to score high on which dimension of the five-factor model?
    openness
  143. Marcus is often asked to accept leadership positions in community organizations because he is highly responsible, self-disciplined, and organized. He is a successful businessman partly because he possesses these qualities. These qualities describe someone who would score high on which of the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model?
    conscientiousness
  144. Allison tends to be withdrawn, quiet, passive, and reserved. She would tend to score low on which dimension of the five-factor model?
    extraversion
  145. Michael's friends describe him as �down-to-earth� and conventional. He enjoys books, films, and television but does not have a wide range of interests and would not describe himself as artistic. He is likely to be a low-scorer on which dimension of the five-factor model?
    openness
  146. Mary tends to be irritable, argumentative, and suspicious of others. She is offended easily and tends to be rather ruthless and vindictive when holding a grudge. She is likely to score very low on which dimension of the five-factor model?
    agreeableness
  147. Linda tends to be prone to moodiness and worry. She suffers from anxiety and much insecurity. She is likely to score high on which dimension of the five-factor model?
    neuroticism
  148. Which of the following theorists arranged personality traits into a hierarchy with the most important traits listed at the top?
    Gordon Allport
  149. Which of the following theorists reduced the wide array of possible personality traits to a list of 30 to 35 basic characteristics using factor analysis?
    Raymod Cattell
  150. Which of the following theorists reduced the wide array of possible personality traits to a list of three basic types which include extraversion-introversion, neuroticism, and psychotism?
    Hans Eysenck
  151. The correlational results of studies done by David Buss and his colleagues may reflect an evolutionary advantage to people who are more open, conscientious, extroverted, agreeable, and less neurotic. Which of the following also confirms the evolutionary perspective?
    • cross-cultural studies
    • comparative studies with chimpanzees and other species
  152. Modern personality research best supports which of the following statements?
    People who marry after the age of 30 may have a more successful marriage because their personalities are more stable.
  153. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    • Humans have 98.4% of the same DNA as chimps.
    • Research shows that women score higher on neuroticism than men.
  154. _________________ refers to relatively stable and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
    Personality
  155. A ____________ is a relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone.
    trait

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