chapter 15

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bimel
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81481
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chapter 15
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2011-04-24 18:10:17
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medical terminology
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nervous system & behavioral health
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  1. Nervous system is divided into what parts?
    • CNS or central nervous system and
    • PNS or peripheral nervous system
  2. CNS consists of what?
    brain and spinal cord
  3. PNS consists of what?
    crnial nerves (carry impulses between brain, neck & head) and spinal nerves (carry messages between spinal cord and abdomen, limbs and chest)
  4. Nervous systema & endocrine system cooperate in doing what?
    regulating and controlling activities of the other body systems
  5. brain
    major portion of cns
  6. cerebrum
    largest portion of brain which s divided into left and right hemispheres.
  7. cerebrum controls what?
    skeletal muscles; interprets general senses (temp, pain, touch); contains centers for sight & hearing. Intellect, memory & emotional reactions take place in the cerebrum.
  8. ventricles
    spaces within brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF flows through the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord
  9. cerebellum
    located under posterior portion of cerebrum. AKA > hindbrain
  10. cerebellum does what?
    assists in coordination of skeletal muscles and maintains our balance.
  11. brainstem
    stemlike portion of brain that connects with spinal cord; 10 of 12 cranial nerves orginate here.
  12. pons
    means bridge...it connects cerebrum with the cerebellum and brainstem
  13. medulla oblongata
    located between pons and spinal cord.
  14. what does medulla oblongata do?
    contains centers that control respiration, heart rate, blood vessell wall muscles that assist in determining blood pressure.
  15. mibrain
    most superior portion of the brainstem
  16. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)
    cushions brain and spinal cord from shock, transports nutrients and clears metabolic waste. Should be clear/colorless.
  17. spinal cord
    passes through vertebral canal from medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra.
  18. what does spinal cord do?
    conducts nerve impulses to and from brain and initiates reflex action to sensory info without info from brain.
  19. meninges
    3 layers of membrane that cover brain and spinal cord
  20. dura mater
    tough outer layer of meninges
  21. arachnoid
    delicate middle layer of meninges. It is loosely attached to the pia mater by weblike fibers wheich allow for the subarachnoid space.
  22. pia mater
    thin inner layer of meninges
  23. nerve
    cordlike structure that carries impulses from one body part to another. 12 pair of cranial nerves and 31 pair of spinal nerves
  24. ganglion (pl. ganglia)
    group of nerve cell bodies located outside of the CNS.
  25. cerebell/o
    cerebellum
  26. cerebr/o
    cerebrum, brain
  27. dur/o
    hard, dura mater
  28. encephal/o
    brain
  29. gangli/o, ganglion/o
    ganglion
  30. meningi/o, mening/o
    meninges
  31. myel/o
    spinal cord
  32. neur/o
    nerve
  33. esthesi/o
    sensation, sensitivity, feeling
  34. ment/o, psych/o
    mind
  35. mon/o
    one, single
  36. phas/o
    speech
  37. poli/o
    gray matter
  38. quadr/i
    four
  39. -iatrist
    specialist , physician
  40. -iatry
    treatment, specialty
  41. -ictal
    seizure, attack
  42. paresis
    slight paralysis
  43. cerebellitis
    inflammation of cerebellum
  44. cerebral thrombosis
    abnormal condition of blood clot in cerebrum...type of ischemic stroke
  45. duritis
    inflammation of dura mater
  46. encephalitis
    inflammation of brain
  47. encephalomalacia
    softening of brain
  48. encephalomyeloradiculitis
    inflammation fo brain, spinal cord and nerve roots
  49. gangliitis
    inflammation ofganglion
  50. glioblastoma
    tumor composed of developing glial tissue....most malignant and common primary brain tumor
  51. glioma
    tumor composed of the glial tissue...term used to describe all primary neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord.
  52. meningitis
    inflammation of meninges, slow growing and benign
  53. meningioma
    tumor of meninges
  54. meningocele
    protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through the vertebral column....AKA myelomeningocele
  55. mononeuropathy
    disease affecitng a single nerve, such as carpal tunnel syndrome
  56. neuralgia
    pain in nerve
  57. neurasthenia
    nerve weakness
  58. neuritis
    inflammation of nervee
  59. neuroarthropathy
    disease of nerves and joints
  60. neuroma
    tumor made up of nerve cells
  61. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of spinal cord
  62. polyneuritis
    inflammation of many nerves
  63. polyneuropaty
    disease of many nerves
  64. radiculitis
    inflammation of nerve roots
  65. rhizomeningomyelitis
    inflammation of nerve root, meninges and spinal cord
  66. subdural hematoma
    pertaining to below the dura mater....collection of blood resulting from broken blood vessel below the dura mater
  67. Alzheimer disease (AD)
    disease characterized by early senility, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness and impaired memory
  68. epilepsy
    disorder in whihc main syptom is recurring seizures
  69. hydrocephalus
    increased amt of cerebrospinal fluid in ventricles of brain which can cause enlargement of the cranium in infants...literally means water in the head
  70. ganglionectomy
    excision of a ganglion, aka called gangliectomy
  71. neurectomy
    excision of a nerve
  72. neurolysis
    separating a nerve from adhesions
  73. neuroplasty
    surgical repair of nerve
  74. neurorrhaphy
    suture of a nerve
  75. neurotomy
    incision into nerve
  76. radicotomy, rhizotomy
    incision into a nerve root
  77. electroencephalograph
    instrument used to record the electrical impulses of the brain
  78. CT Scan...computed tomography of the brain
    process that includes the use of a computer to produce series of brain tissue images at any desired depth....noninvasive, painless and useful in diagnosing brain tumors
  79. MRI Scan..magnetic resonance imaging of the brain or spine
    a noninvasive technique that produces sectional images of soft tissues of the brain or spine through a strong magnetic field. Unlike a CT scan, MRI produces images WITHOUT use of radiaition. Used to visualize tumors, edema, MS and herniated discs.
  80. anesthesia
    without feeling or sensation
  81. aphasia
    condition of without speaking ( loss or impairment of ability to speak)
  82. cephalalgia
    pain in head, headache, aka cephalgia
  83. cerebral
    pertaining to cerebrum
  84. craniocerebral
    pertaining to cranium and cerebrum
  85. dysphasia
    condition of difficulty speaking
  86. encephalosclerosis
    hardening of brain
  87. gliocyte
    glial cell
  88. hemiparesis
    slight paralysis of half of body (right or left)
  89. hemiplegia
    paralysis of right or left side of body, stroke is most common cause
  90. hyperesthesia
    excessive sensitivity to stimuli
  91. interictal
    occurring between seizures or attacks
  92. intracerebral
    pertaining to within the cerebrum
  93. monoparesis
    slight paralysis of one limb
  94. myelomalacia
    softening of spinal cord
  95. neuroid
    resembling a nerve
  96. neurologist
    physician who studies and treats diseases of the nerves
  97. neurology
    study of nerves
  98. panplegia
    total paralysis (aka pamplegia)
  99. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation such as burning, prickling or tingling, often in extremities...may be caused by nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
  100. postictal
    occurring after a seizure or attack
  101. preictal
    occuring before a seizure or attack
  102. quadriplegia
    paralysis of four limbs
  103. subdural
    pertaining to below the dura mater
  104. concussion
    jarring or shaking that results in an injury.....caused by slight or severe head injury; symptoms include vertigo, headache, and loss of consciousness
  105. psychiatrist
    physician who studies and treats disorders of the mind
  106. psychiatry
    specialty of the mind
  107. psychogenic
    originating in the mind
  108. psychopathy
    any disease of the mind
  109. psychosis (pl. psychoses)
    abnormal condition of the mind (major mental disorder characterized by extreme derangement often with delusions and hallucinations)

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