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List the 5 functions of blood.
- 1. Transportation of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes
- 2. The regulation of the PH and ion composition of interstitial fluids
- 3. The restriction of fluid losses at injury sites
- 4. Defense against toxins and pathognens
- 5. The stabilization of body temperature
What kind of tissue is blood?
Plasma is mostly _____, but also contains ________ and solutes.
- Blank 1: Water
- Blank 2: Proteins
Blood cells and cell fragments in plasma are called what?
The three types of formed elements are:
- 1. Red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocyes
- 2. White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes
- 3. Platelets
Hemopoiesis is the process of ___________
Blood cell formation
Plasma and formed elements together make up _______ _______
Is blood acidic or basic? _______, what is the approximate PH? ________
- Blank 1: Basic
- Blank 2: 7.35 and 7.45 (average = 7.4)
What is the temperature of blood?
100.4 degrees F
What is the difference between blood and water?
Blood is five times as viscous as water - that is, five times as sticky, five times as cohesive, and five times as resistant to flow as water.
Do all adults have about the same amount of blood? Explain.
The cardiovascular system of an adult male contains 5-6 liters of whole blood; that of an adult female contains 4-5 liters. The sex differences in blood volume primarily reflect differences in average body size.
List the 3 main types of plasma proteins and explain what they are responsible for doing?
- 1. Albumins - major contributors to the osmotic pressure of plasma. Albumins are also important in the transport of fatty acids, thyroid hormones, some steroid hormones, and other substances.
- 2. Globulins - Function as antibodies and attack foreign proteins and pathogens.
- 3. Fibrinogen - functions in clotting
What is venipuncture and why is it a common technique for drawing blood?
Venipuncture is puncturing a vein to gain a blood sample. It is a common sampling technique because (1) superfical veins are easy to locate, (2) the walls of veins are thinner than those of comparably sized arteries, and (3) blood pressure in the venous system is relatively low, so the puncture wound seals quickly.
What things would you expect to happen to a person whose plasma proteins were decreased?
Because the liver is the primary source of plasma proteins, liver disorders can alter the composition and functional properties of blood. For example, some forms of liver disease can lead to uncontrolled bleeding due to the inadequate synthesis of fibrinogen and other proteins involved in clotting. (Basically would lead to uncontrolled bleeding or liver disorders)
Describe the anatomy and physiology (structure) of red blood cells and explain the 3 benefits of its unusual shape.
Each RBC is a biconcave disc with a thin central region and a thicker outer region. Three benefits for its unusal shape are; (1) It gives each RBC a large surface area-to-volume ratio, (2) it enables RBCs to form stacks that smooth flow through narrow blood vessels, and (3) it enables RBCs to bend and flex when entering small capillaries and branches.
What is the main function fo red blood cells?
Transport oxygen in the blood; also removes carbon dioxide
What protein assists red blood cells in completing their main function?
What causes the condition called anemia?
Anemia is any condition in which the quantity of erythrocytes is lower than normal. Anemia occurs due to either inadequate production or decreased survival of erythrocytes
Approximately how long do RBCs live? Why?
RBCs live for 120 days, approximately. Because they lack nuclei and ribosomes, circulating mammalian RBCs cannot divide or senthesize structural proteins or enzymes. as a result, the RBCs cannot perform repairs, so their life span is relatively short.
How are damaged and old RBCs removed from the blood stream?
After RBCs have traveled about 700 miles in 120 days, either its cell membrane ruptures or some other damage is detected by phagocyes, which engulf the RBC. The kindney's and spleed remove the damaged RBC.
What is erythropoiesis and where does it occur?
Erythropoiesis is also known as red blood cell formation and it occurs only in red bone marrow, or myeloid tissue.
What is the name of a mature red blood cell?
What factors increase or decrease the rate of erythropoiesis?
The horomoe erythroprotein (EPO) triggers erytropoiesis, which in turn increase the rate of production for erythrocytes. However, erythroprotein is only released (1) during anemia, (2) when blood flow to the kidney's declines, (3) when the oxygen content of air in the lungs declines, and (4) when the respiratory surfaces of the lungs are damages.