Medical Terminology Ch 16 .txt

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mhunger
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81491
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Medical Terminology Ch 16 .txt
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2011-04-24 18:24:02
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medical terminology
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Medical Terminology chapter 16 - Endocrine system
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  1. pituitary gland
    approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain. The pituitary is divided into two lobes and is often referred to as the master gland because it produced hormones that stimulate the function of the other endocrine glands
  2. anterior lobe
    produces and secretes GH, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH, PRL and gonadotropic hormones
  3. GH (growth hormone)
    regulates the growth of the body
  4. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
    stimulate sthe adrenal cortex
  5. TSH (thryoid-stimulating hormone)
    stimulates the thyroid gland
  6. gonadotropic hormone
    affects the male and female reproductive system (gonads)
  7. FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
    regulates development, growth and function of the ovaries
  8. LH (lutenizing hormones)
    regulates development, growth and function of the testes
  9. PRL (prolactin or lactogenic hormone)
    promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after brith of an infant
  10. posterior lobe
    stores and releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
  11. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water
  12. oxytocin
    stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum
  13. hypothalmus
    located near the pituitary gland in the brain. Secretes "releasing" hormones that function to stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary gland hormones
  14. thyroid gland
    largest endocrine gland. Located in the neck below the larynx and comprises bilateral lobes connected by an isthmus. The thyroid gland secretes the hormones triiodothyrnine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which require iodine for their production.
  15. Throxine
    necessary for body cell metabolism
  16. parathyroid glands
    four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Produce parathormone (PTH)
  17. parathormone (PTH)
    helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood
  18. islets of Langerhans
    clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, made up of different cell types that secrete various hormones, including insulin and glucagon. Non-endocrine cells found throughout the pancreas produce enzymes that facilitate digestion
  19. adrenal glands (suprarenals)
    paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney. Secrete cortisol, aldosterone, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noraderenaline (norepinephrine)
  20. adrenal cortex
    outer portion of the adrenal gland
  21. adrenal medulla
    inner portion of the adrenal gland
  22. cortisol
    secreted by the adrenal cortex. Aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy (also called hydrocortisone)
  23. aldosterone
    secreted by the adrenal cortex. Regulated electrolytes (mineral salts) that are necessary for normal body funtion .
  24. adrenaline (epinephrine)
    secreted by the adrenal medulla. Helps body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat and respiration
  25. noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
    secreted by the adrenal medulla. Helps body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat and respiration
  26. aden/o
    gland
  27. adren/o
    adrenal glands
  28. adrenal/o
    adrenal glands
  29. cortic/o
    cortex (outer layer of a body organ)
  30. endocrin/o
    endocrine
  31. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid glands
  32. pituitar/o
    pituitary gland
  33. thyroid/o
    thyroid gland
  34. thyr/o
    thyroid gland
  35. acr/o
    exremeties, height
  36. calc/i
    calcium
  37. dips/o
    thirst
  38. kal/i
    potassium
  39. natr/o
    sodium
  40. -drome
    running
  41. acidosis
    condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism often seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  42. Addison disease
    chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression and other emotional problems
  43. Cushing syndrome
    group of symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be the result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfuntion. Symptoms include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face", pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" (fat on the upper back) and wasting away of muscle
  44. diabetes insipidus (DI)
    results of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst (polydipsia) and large amounts of urine (polyuria) and sodium being excreted from the body
  45. diabetes mellitus (DM)
    chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism cause by underactivity of the islets of Langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperhlycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy and neuroopathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis and finally coma
  46. gigantism
    condition brought about by the overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty
  47. goiter
    enlargement of the thyroid gland
  48. ketosis
    condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism
  49. myxedema
    condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thryoxine; a severe from of hypthroidism in an adult. Symptoms include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech and anemia
  50. tetany
    condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood cause by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
  51. thyrotoxicosis
    a condition caused by excessive thyroid hormones
  52. exophthalmos
    abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
  53. hormone
    a chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that is carried in the blood to a target tissue
  54. isthmus
    narrow strip of tissue connectiong two large parts in the body, such as the isthmus that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland
  55. acromegaly
    enlargement of the exremities
  56. adentitis
    inflammation of a gland
  57. adenomegaly
    enlargement of a gland
  58. adenosis
    abnormal condition of a gland
  59. adrenalitis
    inflammation of the adrenal gland
  60. adrenomegaly
    enlargement of one or both of the adrenal glands
  61. hypercalcemia
    excessive calcium in the blood
  62. hyperglycemia
    excessive sugar in the blood
  63. hyperkalemia
    excessive potassium in the blood
  64. hyperpituitarism
    state of excessive pituitary gland activity
  65. hyperthyroidism
    state of excessive thyroid gland activity
  66. hypocalcemia
    deficient calcium in the blood
  67. hypoglycemia
    deficient sugar in the blood
  68. hypkalemia
    deficient potassium in the blood
  69. hyponatremia
    deficient sodium in the blood
  70. hypopituitarism
    state of deficient pituitary gland activity, characterized by decreased secretion of one or more of the pituitary hormones, which can affect the function of the target endocrine gland)
  71. hypothyroidism
    state of deficient thyroid gland activity
  72. panhypopituitarism
    state of total deficient pituitary gland activity, characterized by decreased secretion of all pituitary hormones, which affects the function of all of the other endocrine glands)
  73. parathyroidoma
    tumor of a parathyroid gland
  74. thyroiditis
    inflammation of the thyroid gland
  75. adenectomy
    excision of a gland
  76. adrenalectomy
    excision of one or both adrenal glands
  77. parathyroidectomy
    excision of one or more parathyroid glands
  78. thyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland
  79. thyroidotomy
    incision of the thyroid gland
  80. thyroparathyroidectomy
    excision of the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands
  81. adrenocorticohyperplasia
    excessive development of the adrenal cortex
  82. adrenopathy
    disease of the adrenal gland
  83. cortical
    pertaining to the cortex
  84. corticoid
    resembling the cortex
  85. endocrinologist
    a physician who studies and treats diseases of the endocrine system
  86. endocrinology
    the study of the endocrine system
  87. endocrinopathy
    any disease of the endocrine system
  88. euglycemia
    normal level of sugar in the blood
  89. euthyroid
    normal thyroid function
  90. polydipsia
    abnormal state of much thirst
  91. syndrome
    a set of symptoms that occur together

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