Psychology Chp. 4

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Psychology Chp. 4
2010-02-25 19:45:05
States of Consciousness

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  1. Consciousness
    moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment
  2. Wundt
    introspection to determine structure of consciousness
  3. Conscious
    any stimuli we're aware of at any given moment
  4. preconscious
    mental activity that's outside of awareness, but can easily be brought into current awareness
  5. unconscious
    mental events that can't be brought into conscious awareness under normal circumstances
  6. selective attention
    selecting a particular stimulus to attend to
  7. effortful processing
    selective attention that takes much effort
  8. autonomic processing
    selective attention that takes little effort
  9. divided attention
    dividing attention among several stimuli
  10. When state of consciousness is altered
    • sloppy, careless, uncritical
    • change perception of ourselves, others environment
    • self control weakens
  11. Types of altered states of consciousness
    • daydreaming
    • sleep
  12. daydreaming
    • focus in on internal events -
    • provides escape
    • prepares for future events
  13. reasons for sleep
    • restorative function
    • adaptive function
  14. restorative function
    helps body restore body tissues, aids in growth/memory consolidation
  15. adaptive funciton
    pass the time until daylight which allowed for hunting/gathering
  16. EEG
    electroencephalogram - measures brain wave activity
  17. beta waves
    small fast waves
  18. alpha, theta, delta waves
    progressively larger and slower waves (slower brain activity, deeper sleep)
  19. Stage 1 of sleep
    • lightest
    • alpha waves
  20. stage 2 of sleep
    • muscles more relaxed
    • breathing/ heart rate slower
    • harder to awaken
    • theta waves
  21. stage 3 of sleep
    • transitional stage from light to deep sleep
    • delta waves
  22. stage 4 of sleep
    • deepest sleep
    • almost pure delta waves
  23. How long does it take to progress from stage 1 to 4?
    30 to 40 minutes
  24. Rapid Eye Movement (REM)
    • relatively light sleep
    • alpha waves
    • eyes moving rapidly
    • long dreams occur
    • increase in heart rate/blood pressure
  25. typical nights sleep
    • 4 to 6 cycles of
    • 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM
    • REM gets longer with each cycle
    • each cycle 90min
  26. insomnia
    difficulty sleeping/remaining asleep
  27. narcolepsy
    occurs during day-falling asleep w/o warning for brief periods of time
  28. sleep apnea
    • person stops breathing for 10sec to 2min
    • obstruction in upper airway by sagging tissue
  29. nightmares
    frightening dreams during REM sleep
  30. night terrors
    horrific dream images (stage 4)
  31. dreaming
    • visual images predominant
    • symbolization
    • high emotional quality
  32. licid dreaming
    awareness that you are dreaming despite fact you're asleep
  33. Freud's theory of dreaming
    dreams disguised form of wish fulfillment
  34. activation-synthesis theory
    • brainstem bombards cerebral cortex w/ random neural activity (not matching external sensory events)
    • cerebral cortex attempts to interpret activity by creating dream that "best fits" pattern of activation
  35. problem solving model
    dreams help us find solutions to problems/conflicts b/c they aren't constrained by reality
  36. tolerance
    ability to withstand higher doses of drug than could be tolerated earlier (body trying to maintain homeostasis)
  37. withdrawal
    body's reaction to absence of drug
  38. compensatory responses
    physiological reaction opposite to those created by the drug after discontinued drug use
  39. dependence
    maladaptive pattern of substance use causing significant distress and or impairment
  40. depressants
    depress CNS
  41. alcohol
    increases activity of GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitter- decreases neuro firing)
  42. marijuana
    • consists of leaves and flowers of the hemp plant
    • active ingredient -THC