Culture and Reasoning
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Culture and Reasoning
how does culture affect reasoning?
What are 3 naive dialecticalism and tolerance of contradiction principals?
(reality is not static, in a process of constant change)
(reality is not precise and celar, but full of contradictions)
(or holism, parts are meaningful only in their relations)
What are the 5 Euro-American assumptions
- see world as collection of obj.
obj. have universal prop (i.e whiteness)
- essential for understanding
only one truth
- non-contradiction and excluded middle
What were the findings of the Butterfly study when given 2 polar results?
What are the tolerance levels for contradictory/non-contradictory proverbs for Americans? Chinese?
Americas- high tolerance level for NON-CONTRADICTORY proverbs
Chinese- high tolerance level for CONTRADICTORY/DIALECTICAL proverbs
Why are Chinese more willing to take financial risks?
Because of the
What is the Cushion Hypothesis?
Eastern cultures have
larger social networks
than western, so more tolerant of financial risks.
Asians likely to gamble because they
believe friends, family will help bail them.
What is (cultural) intelligence? What does it reflect?
Capacity to learn from experience and adapt successfully to environment
reflects how well we perform
Is cultural free intelligence test possible?
BONUS!! Why do american students do better on shape tests?
because they can SEPERATE OBJ from bg.
they seperate and analyze obj!
BONUS!!Why do asian students do worse on shape tests??
Because they look at test holistically
(less likeley to seperate obj from bg)
What is value tradition?
defining culture itself.
about cultural differences
What is self tradition?
independent and interdependent selves
independent= autonomy and distinctness (western)
interdependent= identity is more social/other focused. (eastern)
What is Theory tradition?
Involves implicit theories in which selected domains attempt to describe judgements by culturally driven beliefs
What is Inductive Reasoning?
Induce a conclusion with given evidence
ex)see evidence, draw conclusion
What is deductive reasoing?
stating a general principle, then applying it to something specific
ex) syllogism (conclsution derived from 2 premise)
What is covariation?
s to explain why other people and ourselves
behave in a certain way