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The Fraud Triangle
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Heath's Seven Rationalizations of Unethical Behavior
- Denial or responsibility
- Denial of injury
- Denial of the victim
- Condemnation of the condemners
- Appeal to higher loyalties
- Everyone else is doing it
When a multinational corporation ignores local religious and social customs
A payment that is nominal in value and made to speed up a result that would have happened anyways given enough time.
A payment that is larger than nominal, and without which the desired result would have not occurred.
An event that brings, or has the potential for bringing, an organization into disrepute and imperils its future profitability, growth, and possibly its very survival.
Four phases of a crisis
- Reputation restoration
Lerbinger's seven types of crisis
- Natural disasters
- Technological disasters
- Differences of expectations
- Malevolent acts by terrorists, extremists, governments, and individuals
- Management values that do not keep pace with environmental and social requirements/obligations
- Management deception
- management misconduct
Ethics and crisis management: Prevention and warning
- Code of conduct
- Identify potential ethics problems
- Ethical red flags
- Encourage by publicizing, good examples
No culture's ethics are better than any other's
Directs people to do everywhere exactly as they do at home
Resolving tensions responsibly and creatively