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2011-04-25 01:46:12
human genome

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  1. What was Hippocrates theory on inheritance
    The body is made up of "humors" from the male and female witch get together to provide the material for heredity.
  2. How did Aristotle refute this?
    He noted how loss of body parts was not inherited and sometimes people look like their grandparents rather than their parents
  3. What is preformation?
    Preformation is the belief that a small person or "homunculus" resides in the egg "ovistic" or sperm "spermastic"
  4. Who is Lamarck and what is the Doctrine of Inheritance of Acquired Traits?
    • He discovered that acquired traits are not passed on, such as loss of limbs
    • He cut off the tails of mice for 20 years to see if their offpsring had tails
  5. Johann Friedrich Miescher:
    • Isolated DNA from white blood cells
    • discovered nucleic acid
  6. Flemming and Strasburger
    they recognize the existance of chromosomes while Van Beneden describes seperation of them
  7. Walter Sutton
    Proposed chromosomes where located on genes
  8. T.H. Morgan and Sturtevant
    performed chromosome mapping proving that genes are carried on chromosomes and are arranged along the length of the chromosome in a specific order
  9. Beadle and Tatum
    Had the idea that each gene produced a specific enzyme
  10. Oswald Avery and colleagues,
    showed that DNA rather than protien stores the genetic information
  11. Barbara McClintock
    identifies the "jumping genes" that can change their location on the chromosome, called transposons
  12. Linus Pauling
    discovers the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia
  13. Rosalind Franklins
    X-ray diffraction images of DNA provide valuable information about DNA structure.
  14. Watson and Crick
    Discover the structure of DNA
  15. Crick and Gamov
    Discover the "central dogma of DNA" explaining how genes in DNA get made into protiens
  16. Meselson and Stahl
    they describe the nature of DNA replication
  17. Nirenberg and colleagues
    begin work on cracking the genetic code (took 5 years)
  18. Paul Berg
    isolated restriction enzyme and utilized it, along with an enzyme called ligase, to make the first recombinant DNA.
  19. Cohen and Boyer
    express a foriegn gene in bacteria showing how DNA can be cloned or transplanted in bacteria
  20. Definition of Species
    Those variants, that when crossed, can produce fertile offspring
  21. Uses of Recombinant DNA
    • *Making protiens from cloned genes
    • *DNA finger printing
    • *Gene therapy (correction of a mutation by replace the gene with a good copy)
    • *Genetic Testing (diagnostic and predictive tests)
    • *Production of genetically modified organisms
  22. Genetic Testing/Screening
    • prenatal testing of the fetus
    • newborn testing
    • carrier testing and
    • predisposition testing
  23. Eugenics
    • The attempt to control a population by only allowing the carriers of "good genes" to reproduce
    • Buck v. Bell- Bell was institutionalized even though she was of normal inteligance and then sterilized
    • led to the prohibition of interaccial marriages, closing of the border to prevent immigration

    • There were fallacies with the IQ tests and data collection,
    • behavioral traits
    • are not only controlled by genes, the environment plays a roll also
  24. Gregor Mendel
    • Born in 1822 in Hynice
    • He was a natural sciences teacher with no degree 9test anxiety
  25. Law of Segregation
    individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy.
  26. Law of Independant Assortment
    that alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation
  27. Chromosome
    Theory of Inheritance
    Mendel's factors are located on chromosomes and, by segregation of pairs of similar chromosomes, are transmitted to daughter cells
  28. General Aspects of the Human Genome
    • First brought up on UCSC campus
    • Took ten years to complete (April 2003)
  29. Chromatid
    one of the copies of a duplicated chromosome.
  30. Chromatin
    contains the DNA and protein
  31. Centromere
    • contains heterochromatin :a constriction at a
    • specific position along the length of a chromosome.
    • If the centrometer is near the middle, it's called metacentric.
    • If the centroneter is un balanced, it' is called Submetacentric
    • If
    • the centrometer is at the edge of the chromosome it is called
    • Acrocentric
    • It
    • has a roll in seperation of sister chromatids in meitosis.
  32. Interphase
    G1,S,G2 (Gap phase, Synthesis of DNA, gap phase)

    • G1-The interval of
    • cell growth, before DNA replication (chromosomes unduplicated)

    • S-Interval of cell
    • growth when DNA replication is completed (chromosomes dubplicated)

    • G2-Interal following
    • DNA replication, cell prepares to divide
  33. Mitosis
    division of the nucleus
  34. Cytokinesis
    • Production of daughter
    • cells
  35. Mitosis
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  36. Pleiotropic Genes
    a single gene having more than one phenotypic affect
  37. Epistasis
    When one gene masks the affect of another