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What was Hippocrates theory on inheritance
The body is made up of "humors" from the male and female witch get together to provide the material for heredity.
How did Aristotle refute this?
He noted how loss of body parts was not inherited and sometimes people look like their grandparents rather than their parents
What is preformation?
Preformation is the belief that a small person or "homunculus" resides in the egg "ovistic" or sperm "spermastic"
Who is Lamarck and what is the Doctrine of Inheritance of Acquired Traits?
- He discovered that acquired traits are not passed on, such as loss of limbs
- He cut off the tails of mice for 20 years to see if their offpsring had tails
Johann Friedrich Miescher:
- Isolated DNA from white blood cells
- discovered nucleic acid
Flemming and Strasburger
they recognize the existance of chromosomes while Van Beneden describes seperation of them
Proposed chromosomes where located on genes
T.H. Morgan and Sturtevant
performed chromosome mapping proving that genes are carried on chromosomes and are arranged along the length of the chromosome in a specific order
Beadle and Tatum
Had the idea that each gene produced a specific enzyme
Oswald Avery and colleagues,
showed that DNA rather than protien stores the genetic information
identifies the "jumping genes" that can change their location on the chromosome, called transposons
discovers the molecular basis of sickle cell anemia
X-ray diffraction images of DNA provide valuable information about DNA structure.
Watson and Crick
Discover the structure of DNA
Crick and Gamov
Discover the "central dogma of DNA" explaining how genes in DNA get made into protiens
Meselson and Stahl
they describe the nature of DNA replication
Nirenberg and colleagues
begin work on cracking the genetic code (took 5 years)
isolated restriction enzyme and utilized it, along with an enzyme called ligase, to make the first recombinant DNA.
Cohen and Boyer
express a foriegn gene in bacteria showing how DNA can be cloned or transplanted in bacteria
Definition of Species
Those variants, that when crossed, can produce fertile offspring
Uses of Recombinant DNA
- *Making protiens from cloned genes
- *DNA finger printing
- *Gene therapy (correction of a mutation by replace the gene with a good copy)
- *Genetic Testing (diagnostic and predictive tests)
- *Production of genetically modified organisms
- prenatal testing of the fetus
- newborn testing
- carrier testing and
- predisposition testing
- The attempt to control a population by only allowing the carriers of "good genes" to reproduce
- Buck v. Bell- Bell was institutionalized even though she was of normal inteligance and then sterilized
- led to the prohibition of interaccial marriages, closing of the border to prevent immigration
- There were fallacies with the IQ tests and data collection,
- behavioral traits
- are not only controlled by genes, the environment plays a roll also
- Born in 1822 in Hynice
- He was a natural sciences teacher with no degree 9test anxiety
Law of Segregation
individual produces gametes, the copies of a gene separate so that each gamete receives only one copy.
Law of Independant Assortment
that alleles of different genes assort independently of one another during gamete formation
Theory of Inheritance
Mendel's factors are located on chromosomes and, by segregation of pairs of similar chromosomes, are transmitted to daughter cells
General Aspects of the Human Genome
- First brought up on UCSC campus
- Took ten years to complete (April 2003)
one of the copies of a duplicated chromosome.
contains the DNA and protein
- contains heterochromatin :a constriction at a
- specific position along the length of a chromosome.
- If the centrometer is near the middle, it's called metacentric.
- If the centroneter is un balanced, it' is called Submetacentric
- the centrometer is at the edge of the chromosome it is called
- has a roll in seperation of sister chromatids in meitosis.
G1,S,G2 (Gap phase, Synthesis of DNA, gap phase)
- G1-The interval of
- cell growth, before DNA replication (chromosomes unduplicated)
- S-Interval of cell
- growth when DNA replication is completed (chromosomes dubplicated)
- G2-Interal following
- DNA replication, cell prepares to divide
division of the nucleus
- Production of daughter
a single gene having more than one phenotypic affect
When one gene masks the affect of another