Psychobiology

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jonobatten
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81627
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Psychobiology
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2011-05-02 13:03:42
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  1. Sympathetic Nervous System
    A major branch of the autonomic nervous system (with the parasympathetic) whos main function is to mobilise the bodies resources for fight or flight, so increses arousal (heart rate, diverts blood from digestion etc)
  2. Hippocampus
    A central part of the limbic system located in the medial part of the temporal lobe. Important in memory and emotion
  3. SSRI
    A seratonin inhibbitor, often used as a antidepressant, like Prozac. (Selective Seratonin Re-uptake Inhibitor)
  4. Ventricles
    The hollow space in the brain that contain cerebospinal fluid
  5. Adrenal Cortex
    Situated along the adrenal gland, it mediates the stress response
  6. Global Aphasia
    Where damage has effected both the Wernike and Broca's areas. Total aphasia involving all the functions which go to make up speech or communication.
  7. Axon
    The usually long process of a nerve fiber that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
  8. Somatosensory Cortex
    The region of the cerebral cortex receiving the somatic sensory data from the thalamus
  9. Angular Gyrus
    A region of the posterior parietal lobe, borders the primary visual cortex, where stokes can lead to reading problems or blindness
  10. Left Visual Field
    Sensory information received in the left visual field is sent to the right hemisphere. The visual system is partially crossed, so both contralateral and ipsilateral
  11. Episodic Memory
    Episodic memory is a category of long-term memory that involves the recollection of specific events, situations and experiences. Plays a vital role in self identity.
  12. Killer T Cells
    A vital part of the immune system, actively destroying cells that pose a threat.
  13. Temporal Summation
    The additive effects of impulses arriving in a short period of time to the presynaptic terminal
  14. Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
    A region within the thalamus that receives fibres from the optic nerve and projects them to the primary visual cortex
  15. WADA Test
    Anaesthetising one hemisphere of the brain, by injecting in the chorotic artery. Helps to show hemisphere functions
  16. Somatic Nervous System
    The peripheral nervous system dealing with sensory input from the external world and motor commands to the muscles and skeleton.
  17. Arcuate Faciculus
    A pathway between the Broca's and Wernike's area. Damage causes difficulty shadowing (repeating immediately) though speach and language are spared.
  18. Optic Chiasma
    The point in the brain where some of the nerve fibres cross over to the other side of the brain
  19. Seratonin
    (5-HT) a neurotransmitter involved in the control of sleep, linked with depression
  20. Receptive Aphasia
    Also known as Wernike's aphasia, an aphasia where people have speech and language but use incorrect words.
  21. Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential
    This occurs in the post-synaptic membrane, when release of the neurotansmitter across the synapse tends to increase the probability of an action potential in the post-synaptic neuron.
  22. Adrenal Medula
    Part of the adrenal gland under neural control, releases adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood stream.
  23. Korsakoff's Psychosis
    A thiamine deficiency often caused by severe alcoholism. Causes degradation of the diencephalon.
  24. Precentral Gyrus
    Region of cortex in front of the central fissure. Contains the motor cortex
  25. Divided Field
    Introduced by Sperry, a method of presenting visual stimuli to individual hemispheres
  26. Semantic Memory
    A sub-system of long term memory containing factual information about the world, including linguistic rules and concepts. This is often saved in amnesia.
  27. Pituitary Gland
    The master gland in the endocrine system, sits bellow the hypothalamus and excretes hormones under hypothalamic control.
  28. Clozapine
    An antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia. A atypical antipsychotic
  29. Amygdala
    A structure within the limbic system, involved in emotional states
  30. Agraphia
    Inability to read or write, caused by damage to the angular gyrus and its link to the visual cortex.
  31. Anterograde Amnesia
    A failure to learn new material after brain damage or disease.
  32. Frontal Lobe
    A division of the cerebral hemispheres. Contains the motor cortex and the largest amount of the association cortex than any of the lobes. Very important in many of the higher functions in humans.
  33. Actylecholine
    (ACh) A exitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Loss of ACh is associated with Alzheimer's.
  34. HM
    Henry Molaison, a patient who underwent a bilateral temporal lobe resection. Suffered servere anterograde amnesia. Due to the reasonably precise nature of the surgery, many studies were conducted on him.
  35. Spatial Summation
    Where several presynaptic terminals are located closely to the same patch of post synaptic membrane. This acts to stimulate an action potential in the post synaptic neuron
  36. Efferent Pathway
    Carry nerve impluses away from the CNS to the muscles and or glands. Opposite of the 'afferent pathway'.
  37. Broca's Aphasia
    Damage to the Broca's area causing difficulties in producing speech, though understanding is intact.
  38. Disconnection Syndrome
    Neurological disorders caused by interruption to the fibre pathways between the hemispheres
  39. Atypical Antipsychotic
    A newer version of drug for schizophrenia. Also work on the dopamine pathway but do not cause the motor control disabilities of the initial antipsychotics
  40. ACTH
    A hormone released by the pituitary gland, stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. (Biological stress)
  41. Orientation Column
    Vertical columns of neurons in the visual cortex. Which all have the same orientation selectively.
  42. Thalamus
    Located in the forebrain, and a part of the dienchephalon structure. Acts as a relay station for sensory information going to the cerebral cortex, regulates electrical activity to the brain.
  43. General Adaption Syndrome
    Reaction to stressful states, a series of phases (Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion)
  44. Transduction
    The conversion of sensory information into nerve inpulses by the sensory receptors
  45. fMRI
    'Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging' A form of brain scanning that takes slice like images of the complete brain.
  46. Right Visual Field
    Sensory information received in the right visual field is sent to the left hemisphere. The visual system is partially crossed, so both contralateral and ipsilateral
  47. Global Aphasia
    Where damage has effected both the Wernike and Broca's areas. Total aphasia involving all the functions which go to make up speech or communication.
  48. Amygdala
    A structure within the limbic system, involved in emotional states
  49. Corpus Callosum
    The channel between the two hemispheres of the brain, made up of fibres that carry information between the hemispheres.
  50. Occipital Lobe
    One of the 4 lobes of the brain, primarily taken up with visual processing
  51. Parkinsons Disease
    A motor-neuron disease that is caused by degredation to the nigro-stratial dopamine pathway in the brain. Characterised by tremors and rigidity. Treated with dopamine agonist drugs
  52. Dizogotic Twins
    Twins that are not identical. So develop from two different eggs. Genetically different.
  53. Daily Hassles
    A scale that measured life-events and calculated stress.
  54. Noraddrenaline
    A synaptic neurotransmitter, linked to arousal and regulation of sleep. Low levels are linked to depression.
  55. Synaptic Vessicle
    Protective sacs that carry neutotransmitter molecules to the membrane in the axon terminal.
  56. Retrograde Amnesia
    An inability to recall previous material, often caused by trauma to the brain.
  57. Immune System
    The bodies protective system, acts to prevent against disease.
  58. Visual Dorsal Stream
    Takes information from the primary visual cortex to other visual processesing areas, linked with motion processing and visio-spatial movement.
  59. Axon
    The usually long process of a nerve fibre that generally conducts impulses away from the body of the nerve cell.
  60. Reticular Formation
    A complex network in the brain, vital for for a large range of functions required for life, like arousal.

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