Pharm RED

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Author:
cassiedh
ID:
81683
Filename:
Pharm RED
Updated:
2011-05-01 15:12:59
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ch23
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Description:
substance abuse
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  1. what is the chronic self medication with a drug in excessive quantities
    drug abuse
  2. what are the psychologic dependence characteristics of ADDICTION? 4
    • drug cravings
    • drug use causing personal and legal difficulties
    • overwheliming desire to obtain drugs
    • reuse of drugs despite personal difficulties
  3. what are the three characteristics of drug abuse?
    • altered state of consciousness
    • development of tolerance
    • abstinence syndrome if drug is discontinued abrubtly after an exteneded period of use
  4. what is the voluntary use of alcohol or other drugs
    experimentation
  5. t/f regular use is always folled by dependence for effect
    false NOT always
  6. what is the support group for friends and fmaily members of ALCOHOL abusers
    Al-Anon
  7. t/f a dependant substance abuser may still work, maintain family relationsips and friendships and limit use to certain periods of time
    true
  8. t/f changes in the brain structure and function persists after drugs are stopped
    true
  9. repeated drugs use changes _____ ____ and _____
    brain structure and function
  10. what are the symptoms of addiction?
    uncontrolled alcohol/drug craving, seeking and using that persists even in the face of adverse consequences
  11. substance abuse can be related to _____ influences
    GENETIC
  12. how can a prescriber misuse drugs? 3
    • prescribing w/o exploration of pts presenting complaint
    • prescribing drugs for prolonged periods w/o medical supervision
    • giving nitrous to non anxious pt
  13. under the rehabilitation act what is substance abuse calssified as?
    handicap
  14. the rehabilitiation act promotes what and protects against what?
    • promotes opportunity to regain place in society
    • protects against discrimination of employment
  15. t/f drug misue is the self administration of a drug in increasing quantities, resulting in dependence, functional impairment, and deviation from approved socail norms. Drug abuse is the indiscriminate or inappropriate use of drugs
    • both statements are false
    • drug abuse is self administration of a drug in increasing quantities, resulting in dependence, functional impairment and deviation from approved social norms
    • drug misuse is the indiscriminate or inappropriate use of drugs
  16. what is it called when there is a reduced drug effect after repeated use
    tolerance
  17. what are the three most common abused drugs?
    • caffeine
    • cocaine
    • marijuana
  18. what is the #1 most commoly abused substance resulting in emergency visit?
    Alcohol
  19. what is the #2 most commonly abused drug resulting in emergency visit?
    cocaine
  20. what is the most commoly abused opiod?
    heroin
  21. what drug do useres begin by smoking or by using SC and then progress to IV
    heroin
  22. what opiates act through binding to opioid receptors in the brain?
    • heroin, meperidine (Demerol)
    • propoxyphene (Darvon)
  23. IV use of herion often leads to what?
    INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
  24. what is an overdosage sign of opiod use?
    extreme miosis (pinpoint pupils)
  25. what are examples of opioid antagonists?
    • NALOXONE (Narcan)
    • naltrexone (ReVia)
  26. what opioid antagonist also treates ACUTE narcotic overdose?
    Naloxone
  27. what begins about 6 hours or more after last injection?
    abstinence syndrome
  28. what are four signs and symptoms of withdrawl?
    anxiety, dysphoria, seizure, piloerection (goose bumps)
  29. what is a highly addicitve synthetic amine?
    METH
  30. how is Meht characterized?
    • skin lesions
    • rampant decay
    • INTOLERANCE to vasoconstricors
  31. what is the oral effect of Meth use?
    Rapid decay
  32. what are the oral effects of cocaine?
    loss of attachment and SEVERE RECESSION OF BUCCAL GINGIVA in presence of otherwise healthy periodontium
  33. what is contraindicated with cocaine use?
    vasoconstrictors
  34. what is the property of a drug that leads to self administration?
    reinforcing efficacy
  35. what drug enhances effects of other depresssnats?
    benzodiazepines
  36. when benzodiazepines are used what happens to the CNS? Respiratory system? and Cardiac?
    • CNS depression
    • respiratory collapse
    • cardiac arrest
  37. what is it called when alcohol is used in excessive amounts or for longer than advised (binge drinking)
    alcohol MISUSE
  38. alcohol abuse increases a persons risk for what disease?
    perio
  39. Alcohol has a _____ toxic effect on periodontal tissues
    direct
  40. what is the antidote for ACUTE alcohol intoxication
    no known antidote
  41. what is used to treath CHRONIC alcoholism?
    disulfiram (Antabuse)
  42. _____ abuseres need to have thorough oral examinations because of increased risk for _____ _____, monitoring of oral self care (____ ____ ___), qeustioning about history of liver disease and ____ problems
    • Alcohol abusers
    • oral cancer
    • poor oral hygiene
    • bleeding
  43. what are the signs of alcohol abuse?
    • red face
    • blood shot eyes
    • hypertrophy of parotid glands
    • breath odors of ALCOHOL DUH! `
  44. what is a indolamine hallucinogen?
    lysergic acid (LSD)
  45. what is the prototype and most potent indolamiens?
    lysergic acid (LSD)
  46. what type of drugs are phencyclidine and marijuana?
    hallucinogens
  47. what are the subjective experience effects of hallucinogens?
    • flashbacks
    • impaired judgment
    • visual distorations/panic attacks
  48. what is the most potent hallucinogen?
    lysergic acid (LSD)
  49. what hallucinogen is chracterized by hypersalivation and sweating, blank stare, disorganized thought, bizzare behavior, muscle twitches, rigidity and elevated blood pressure and pulse
    phencylidine (angel dust-PCP)
  50. what is an oral side effect of cannabinoids
    xerostomia
  51. what is the medical name for marijuana
    marinol
  52. what hallucinogen abuse is confined to helath care professionals?
    nitrous oxide
  53. what are the effects of abuse for aliphatic nitrites-volatile liquids?
    impaired ability to hold instruments
  54. what hallucinogen can cuase emphysemsa, lekoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma in oral mucosa?
    nicotine
  55. what is the maine etiologic factor of nicotine
    emphysema
  56. stages of abuse treatments can have ____ care or medical _____ or stabilization programs
    • acute care
    • detoxification
  57. what is the purpose of acute care?
    safely and comfortable REMOVE TOXINS FROM BODY
  58. ___ _____ does little to change long term durg use?
    medical detoxification
  59. what drugs are used for ACUTE overdose and withdrawl treatment?
    Naloxone (narcan)
  60. what is the triad of acute overdose symptoms?
    • respiratory depression
    • pinpoint pupils
    • unconsciousness
  61. what reveses acute overdose?
    naloxone
  62. what drug is used for maintenance after acute overdose
    naltrexone
  63. what is the purpose and goal of rehabilitation
    teach skills necessary to change behavior
  64. what does rehabilitation require
    care in treatment center
  65. which drug is used to treat chronic alcoholism
    disulfiram
  66. what treats opiod overdose?
    narcan
  67. what is the tx for narcotic withdrawal and dependence?
    methadone
  68. ___ drug useres need antibiotic premedication before tx
    IV
  69. what is the mst pain reliever for herioin addicts?
    NSAIDS
  70. what is an antidepressant used for smoking cessation to primarily relieve symptoms assocaited with nicotine withdrawal
    zyban (wellbutrin)
  71. what is a non nicotinic medication that is designed to BLOCK nicotinic receptors in the brain
    Chantix
  72. what is a medical condition involving psycholgical and physical changes from reapated use of substance
    addiction
  73. what is the self administration of a drug in increasing quantities, resulting in dependence, functional impairment, and devation from approved social norms
    drug abuse
  74. what is the indiscriminate or inappropriate use of drugs
    drug misuse
  75. what are the most frequently abused drugs?
    nictoine and ethyl alcohol
  76. what are the most widely used sympathomimetic stimulants? 3
    • cocaine
    • methamphetamine
    • amphetamine
  77. what are the signs and symptoms central and physiologic effects of methampetamine
    • insomina
    • anxiety
    • paranoia
    • hallucinations
    • aggression
    • tachycardia
    • arrhythmia
    • hypertesion
    • stroke
  78. what is the property of a drug that leads to self administration
    reinforcing efficacy
  79. what are the runs?
    withdrawal effect of cocaine=want to stay high before the crash
  80. ethanol, barbituates, benzodiazepines=
    CNS depressants
  81. what is approved for use in treatment of chronic alcohol abuse?
    naltrexone
  82. what are the oral complications of alcoholism? 3
    • glossitis
    • loss of papillae
    • angular chelitis (candida albicans)
  83. what may interact iwth alcohol or alcohol related GI disease?
    analgesics
  84. what are the signs of overdose of lysergic acid
    • widely dialted pupils
    • hypertension
    • visual distortions
    • panic reactions
    • paranoia
  85. what effect does nitrous oxide have on a dental professional abuser?
    neuropathy-impaired abiolitiy to hold instrument

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