Anatomy E4 IV, Mammae

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Anatomy E4 IV, Mammae
2011-04-25 15:30:08

Anatomy E4 IV, Mammae
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  1. Which Pair of mammae develop in...
    • Porcine: Thoracic (thoracoinguinal) Pair
    • Ungulates: Inguinal Pair
  2. Where are supernumerary teats found in...
    • Cow: Caudo-Ventral surface of the udder
    • Ewe/Doe: Cranial
  3. Number of mammae in...
    Small Ruminants:
    • Cow: 4
    • Small Rum: 2
    • Sow: 10-18
    • Mare: 2
  4. Which species have hemispherical mammae?
    • Cow
    • Ewe
    • Mare
  5. Which species have pendulous, sac-like mammae?
  6. Parts of the mammae
    • Body
    • Teat
  7. How many Mammae do cows have?
    2 pairs
  8. How many mammary glands/mammae in the cow?
    1 mammary gland/mammae
  9. How many mammae do ewes have?
  10. Each mammae of the ewe contains:
    • 1 Lactiferous Sinus
    • 1 Papillary duct
  11. How many pairs of mammae does the sow have?
    5-7 pairs
  12. How many mammary gland per mamma in the Sow?
    How Many Teat Orifices?
    • 2-3 mammary glands/mamma
    • 2-3 teat orifices/mamma
  13. How many mammae do Nannies have?
    2, 1 pair
  14. How many mammary glands/mammae are found in the Nanny?
    6-9 mammary glands/mammae
  15. In the cow, the mammae may extent from ___ to ___
    Umbilicus to Labia
  16. What divides the L & R halves of the bovine mammae?
    Median Intermammary Groove
  17. Each half of the cow's mammae is divided into ___& ____
    Fore- and Hind-quarters
  18. What divides the Fore- & Hind-Quarters of the cow's mammae
    Transverse Intermammary Groove
  19. Which parts of the cow's mammae have distinct duct systems, yet the groove is poorly defined?
    Fore & Hind quarters
  20. Why is the tranverse intermammary groove poorly defined?
    The glandular Tissue intermingels
  21. Shape of the cow's teats
    • Cylindrical
    • Rounded Tips
  22. Tissue layer contents/characterisitics of the cow's teats:
    • Skin Sensitive
    • Middle layer of CT, Smooth muscle fibers & Highly coiled, thick walled veins
    • Inner Layer Mucosal lining of Lactiferous sinus
  23. What can induce a hard milker?
    • Rosette of Furstenberh
    • Tight Papillary Sphincter
  24. (Pathway of milk through the mammary gland)
    • Alveolus
    • Intralobular Duct
    • Interlobular Duct
    • Lactiferous
    • Lactiferous Sinus
    • Gland Sinus
  25. Two parts of the Lactiferous Sinus are the ____ & ____
    • Glandular Sinus & Papillary Sinus
  26. Where can excessive bleeding occur within the teat?
    At the venous plexus within in the Mucosal Fold btw the Papillary and Glandular Sinuses
  27. What forms the palpable milk nodes?
    Dilated and Constricted Segments of the lactiferous Ducts
  28. The suspensary apparatus is composed of:
    • Lateral Lamina
    • Medial Lamina
  29. Which Lamina of the cow's suspensory App arises from the Deep Fascia of the Abd Wall & Symphyseal Tendon & contains BV, Nerves, & Paranchyma
    Lateral Lamina
  30. Whichl Lamina of the cow's suspensary App contains Yellow Elastic Tissue
    Yellow Elastic Tissue
  31. Heavy teats will point in which direction?
  32. In the cow suspensary App, each Lamina is seperated by...
    Loose CT
  33. In the cow's suspensary app, the lamina are thickest at which end?
  34. Within the cow's Suspensory App, what are the lamina that project into the substance of the udder?
    Suspensary Lamllae
  35. To produce 1L of milk, how many L of blood must pass through the cow's udder?
    30-500L blood
  36. Major blood supply to the cow's udders
    External Pudendal
  37. In the cow, the External Pudendal A gives rise to:
    • Cranial Mammary A (AKA Superficial Caudal Epigastric)
    • Caudal Mammary A
  38. What forms the Arterial Circle within the cow's udder?
    • Mammary Arteries
    • Areas of Anastomoses
  39. What other A supplies a small amount to the cow's udders?
    Internal Pudendal
  40. The Cranial Mammary A (Superficial Caudal Epigastric) in the cow anastomoses with the
    Superficial Cranial Epigastric
  41. Milk Vein=
    Cranial Superficial Epigastric (AKA Subcutaneous Anbdominal Vein)
  42. Venous Drainage from the Cows udder (5):
    • Veinous Ring
    • Ca Superficial Epigastric
    • Cr Superficial Epigastric
    • Milk Well
    • Internal thoracic
  43. In the cow's udder, where can blood flow in either direction?
    Superficial Caudal Epigastric V
  44. What supplies sympathetic innervation to the skin, Middle/Caudal parts of the udder & Parenchyma of the udder?
    Genitofemoral N
  45. What supplies innervation to the skin and teats of the Cr udder in the cow?
    • Iliohypogastric (L1)
    • Ilioinguinal (L2)
    • Cr Branch of the Genitofemoral (L3)
  46. What supplies the Caudal Aspect of the Udder's skin in the cow?
    Mammary Branch of the Perineal (pudendal)
  47. Circle VS Ring?
    • Circle= AA
    • Ring= VV
  48. How many Superficial Inguinal Lnn's are found in...
    • Cow: 8
    • Ewe/Nanny: 4
  49. The Superficial Inguinal/Mammary lnns drain:
    • Udder
    • Perineum
    • Medial Aspect of the thigs
  50. Superficial Inguinal Ln Efferents to the
    Deep Inguinal Ln (iliofemoral)
  51. Clinical Significance of the Deep Inguinal lnns
    • Meat Inspection
    • Tumors
  52. What additional ln drains thoracic and cranial abd mammae in pigs?
    Axillary LN
  53. Lumbar/High Epidural Block
    Site of injection:
    Nerves blocked:
    • Site of injection: Btw L1 & L2 Spinous Process
    • Nerves blocked: T13, 1 & L2
  54. With which epidural block can a larger amount of anesthetic be used?
    High Epidural
  55. High Epidural block desensitizes which areas (5)?
    • Abd
    • Inguinal
    • Scrotum
    • Penis/Udder
    • Hindlimb
  56. Which block is used more often for goats, sheep and pigs?
    Lumbosacral Block
  57. Sacrocaudal/Low Epidural Block
    Injection Site:
    Nerves Blocked:
    • Site: Cd1 & Cd2
    • Nerves: Last 3 Sacral
  58. Low Epidural Block Desensitizes which areas (3)?
    • F Tubular Genitalia
    • Rectum
    • Perineal
  59. Which block is facilitated by lifting the tail head and locating a kink?
    Sacrocaudal/Low Epidural
  60. When should extra measures be taken to mastitis?
    • Dry Period
    • Near Calving
    • Early Lactation