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What is a seizure?
State of hyperactivity in either a section of the brain or all of the brain
Explain tonic clonic seizures.
Periods of muscle rigidity (tonic stage) followed by spazmotic twitching (clonic stage) then flaccidity & a gradual return to consciousness (postictal stage)
How do Na ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
They inhibit the influx of Na into the cell decreasing the cells ability to depolarize & propagate seizures
How do Ca ion blockers work for seizure treatment?
They inhibit influx of Ca in Ca channels in the hypothalmus
What are the 2 Na ion blockers used for seizure treatment?
- Phentoin aka Dilantin
- Carbamazapine aka Tegratol
What is the Ca ion blocker used for seizure treatment?
How do Benzos mitigate seizures?
They interact w/the GABA receptor-chloride ion channel complex. They hyperpolarize the membrane of the CNS neurons decreasing their response to stimuli
What factors could be used to differentiate between a seizure & a syncopal episode?
- Hx of seizures
- Head inj
- Alcohol/drug abuse
- Pt Meds
- Fever/H/A/stiff neck
What are 4 points of seizure mgmt?
- Safety of you & your pt
- Quiet Atmosphere
How do we manage status epilepticus?
- 25g of D50 if hypoglycemic
- 5-10mg diazepam IV/PR
- Monitor Airway
What are the 3 types of syncopal episodes?
- Cardiovascular - Dysrhythmias/mechanical
- Non cardiovascular
How do we manage a syncopal episode?
- BSI/Scene safety
- Position of Comfort or trendelenberg if no C-Spine issue
What are the 7 levels of a tonic clonic seizure?
- Tonic phase
- Hypertonic phase
- Clonic Phase
- Post seizure
What are the 2 types of partial seizures?
- Simple partial
- Complex partial
A simple partial seizure is described as:
- One which effects only a small part of the brain & 1 part of the body
- Ppl usually retain consciousness
- Can progress to complex partial
A complex partial seizure is described as:
- Bilat cerebral hemisphere involvement
- Causes AMS/LOC
- Often starts as a simple partial
What are the 2 classifications of strokes?
Describe an ischemic stroke:
Blood supply to part of the brain is decreased causing dysfunction of brain tissue in that area
What are the four reasons why Ischemic strokes occur?
- Systemic Hypoperfusion
- Venous Thrombosis
Describe a hemorrhagic stroke:
One caused by an accumulation of blood anywhere within the skull vault
What are the S&S of a stroke?
- Facial drooping
- Gait Disturbances
- Vision Problems
What would you like to do?
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