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Act of Toleration (1649)
Passed in Maryland, it guaranteed toleration to all Christians but decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ. Ensured that Maryland would continue to attract a high proportion of Catholic migrants throughout the colonial period.
Barbados slave code (1661)
First formal statute governing the treatment of slaves, which provided for harsh punishments against offending slaves but lacked penalties for the mistreatment of slaves by masters. Similar statutes were adopted by Southern plantation societies on the North American mainland in the 17th and 18th centuries.
In politics, a territory between two antagonistic powers, intended to minimize the possibility of conflict between them. In British North America, Georgia was established as a buffer colony between British and Spanish territory.
Legal document granted by a government to some group or agency to implement a stated purpose, and spelling out the attending rights and obligations. British colonial charters guaranteed inhabitants all the rights of Englishmen, which helped solidify colonists’ ties to Britain during the early years of settlement.
First Anglo-Powhatan War (1614)
Series of clashes between the Powhatan Confederacy and English settlers in Virginia. English colonists torched and pillaged Indian villages, applying tactics used in England’s campaigns against the Irish
Iroquois Confederacy (late 1500s)
Bound together five tribes–the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas–in the Mohawk Valley of what is now New York State
First permanent English settlement in North America founded by the Virginia Company.
Short-term partnership between multiple investors to fund a commercial enterprise; such arrangements were used to fund England’s early colonial ventures.
Legal principle that the oldest son inherits all family property or land. Landowner’s younger sons, forced to seek their fortunes elsewhere, pioneered early exploration and settlement of the Americas.
Protestant Reformation (16th Century)
Movement to reform the Catholic Church launched in Germany by Martin Luther. Reformers questioned the authority of the Pope, sought to eliminate the selling of indulgences, and encouraged the translation of the bible from Latin, which few at the time could read. The reformation was launched in England in the 1530s when King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church.
Roanoke Island (1585)
Sir Walter Raleigh’s failed colonial settlement off the coast of North Carolina.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-1646)
Last-ditch effort by the Indians to dislodge Virginia settlements. The resulting peace treaty formally separated white and Indian areas of settlement.
Spanish Armada (1588)
Spanish fleet defeated in the English Channel in 1588. The defeat of the Armada marked the beginning of the decline of the Spanish Empire.
Frontier farmers who illegally occupied land owned by others or not yet officially opened for settlement. Many of North Carolina’s early settlers were squatters, who contributed to the colony’s reputation as being more independent-minded and “democratic” than its neighbors.
Tuscarora War (1711-1713)
Began with an Indian attack on Newbern, North Carolina. After the Tuscaroras were defeated, remaining Indian survivors migrated northward, eventually joining the Iroquois Confederacy as its sixth nation.
Defeated by the south Carolinans in the war of 1715–1716. The Yamasee defeat devastated the last of the coastal Indian tribes in the Southern colonies.
A protestant monarch who set out to kill the Catholic Irish. She broke ties officially with the Roman Catholic Church and defeated the Spanish Armada. She also knighted Sir Francis Drake.
Both Catholic and hated the English.
Broke with the Roman Catholic Church and began the English Protestant Reformation.
Sir Francis Drake
A "sea dog" who plundered and seized Spanish treasure ships and raided Spanish settlements. He looted away and returned in 1580 where Queen Elizabeth knighted him on his ship.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
Attempted to colonize Newfoundland but he lost his life at sea in 1583. Half brother of Sir Walter Raleigh.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Organized the expedition that landed in 1585 on Roanoke Island. The colony however mysteriously vanished and despite several attempts at colonization, it was eventually abandoned.
English Problems 1550-1600
Population boom and economic depression.
Gave a charter to the VA Co. for a settlement in the New World. This established Jamestown in 1607.
Intended to endure in the New World for only a few years and then be liquidated for a profit. It was made of investors who did not think of long term colonization. Founded the settlement at Jamestown in 1607.
Captain John Smith
Saved the Jamestown colony by his leadership in 1608. He enforced stricter rule and made peace with the Powhatans through Pocahontas.
Kidnapped John Smith in a ritual that was symbolic of the power of the nation and the desire for peaceful relations with the English.
Became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers which helped to preserve peace and provide needed foodstuffs.
The winter of 1609-1610 in which only 60 of the original 400 settlers survived.
Lord de La Warr
The new governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610. He imposed a harsh military regime on the colony and undertook aggressive military action against the Indians.
An indian chieftain who had dominated the native peoples living in the Jamestown region. He asserted supremacy over a dozen or so small tribes. They considered the English potential allies at first but were mistaken.
Married Pocahontas to end the First Anglo-Powhatan war in the first known interracial marriage in VA. He also became the father of the tobacco industry in VA and saved the colony from economic collapse.
Outcome and Consequences of 2 Anglo-Powhatan Wars
- -No more thoughts of attempting to assimilate the Indians into white society
- -Banished them from their ancestral lands.
- -Formally separated Indian and white areas of settlement (beginning of reservation system)
- -The Indians of the Chesapeake were virtually extinct by 1685.
What were the 3 D's of Indian failure?
House of Burgesses
Authorized in 1619 by the VA Co, this allowed the settlers to summon an assembly. This set a precedent as it was the first of many miniature parliaments in America.
Founded Maryland in 1634 as a safe haven for Catholics. It was the fourth English colony to be planted and became a refuge for the Catholics that were being prosecuted in England.
Safe haven for Catholics. It produced tobacco like VA and had the Act of Toleration passed to provide shelter for people fleeing religious prosecution.
Penniless persons who bound themselves to work for a number of years to pay their passage to America.
A poor man's crop. It could be planted easily, produced marketable leaves within a year and was easily processed. It was planted in many of the middle colonies but destroyed the soil and ruined some of the land.
Planted in the caribbean. It was a rich man's crop and required much work to produce a commercially viable product. It often used slave labor to complete the job.
A "Puritan soldier" who beheaded Charles I in 1649 and ruled England for nearly a decade. During this period, colonization was interrupted.
- Grew Rice and Indigo
- Employed slaves from the West Indies
- Split into North and South in 1712
- Also enslaved Indians
- Were generally religiously tolerant
- NC was resistant to authority
- Had bloody relations with the Indians
- Chartered as a buffer
- It did not have slaves until 1750
- Least populous of colonies
- Often housed prisoners and other "wretched souls"
Was a prison reformer after one of his friends died in jail. He saved GA with his own money and from the Spanish attacks.
Founded the Methodist Church in England. He was from GA.