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What chemical is the leading cause of asthma in workplace? What are the complecations that could develop with exposure to this chemical.
Isocyanates. The asthma can develop into pulmonary edema
This chemical is used as a precursor to carbamate pesticide.
Carbamate was used as medicine to treat this disease.
Myashenia gravis (disease that blocks ACh receptors)
What are the symptoms of carbamate poisoning? Hint: similar to organophospates
Paralysis of muscle, increased fluid secreation and CNS disturbance
What differentiate carbamates from organophosphate in relation to acetylcholine esterase?
carbamates do not go through aging process, therefore the binding is not permanent...can be reveresed.
What is the ACGIH cancer rating for carbaryl (carbamate)? Does carbamate have a skin designation?
- A4 - not classifiable as human carcinogen
- yes, it does have a skin designation.
Which form of arsenic is the most dangerous? Why?
- Organic arsenic (methylated) 5+ is the most dangerous
- Because organic form increases the absorption of arsenic.
What is the cancer rating (ACGIH and IARC) of arsenical pesticides?
- IARC group 1
- ACGIH A1 (confirmed human carcinogen)
- lung cancer
What is the dominant acute effect of arsenical pesticides? What are the chronic effects of arsenical pesticides?
- acute: GI effect is dominant
- Chronic: CNS effect is dominant (parasthesia, muscle weakness - and can stop breathing). Also can deposit in fingernails, hair falls out.
What is the cancer rating of acrlonitrile (ACGIH)? Any designation?
- A3 - known animal carcinogen but unknown relation to humans
- skin designation.
What important diseases are related to vinyl chloride?
Scleroderma, Reynaud's Phenomenon and frost bite
What are the toxicities of Vinyl Chloride??
Toxic to liver; acute toxicity to CNS and cancersous to sinusoids of liver and lung
What areas does formaldehyde sensitize?
- Skin - type 4
- lung - type 1 (asthma)
What are the critical effects of formaldehyde?
Eye irritation and upper respritory irritation
Formaldehyde cancer rating (ACGIH)? Any designation?
- 2A - suspected carcinogen
- no skin designation