World Religions Final.txt

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World Religions Final.txt
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World Religions Final
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  1. Hinduism
    • Indo-Europeans
    • Family of languages
    • Migration from central asia
    • Composition of poems and religious manuals
  2. The Vedas
    • Shruti(�heard�)
    • Smrti(�remembered�)
    • Rig Veda
    • Samhitas
    • Brahmanas
    • Aranyakas
    • Upanishads
  3. Deities (Vishnu, Shiva, Kali)
    • Vishnu- Preserver god, protector of life
    • Shiva- avenging god and destroying god
    • Kali- the dark mother
  4. The Upanishads
    • Sitting near devotedly-a guru
    • Philosophical Hinduism
  5. Brahman and Atman
    • Brahman(absolute)
    • Atman(self)
  6. Karma
    • Moral law of cause and effect
    • Determines rebirth
  7. Samsara
    All life in cycles of birth, death, and rebirth
  8. The Ramayana
    Ancient Sanskrit epic
  9. The Dharmashastras
    • Ancient law books
    • Law of aryans
  10. The Caste System
    • Dharmasatras(laws)
    • Brahmin(priest)
    • Kshatriya(warrior)
    • Vaisya(merchant)
    • Shudra(servant)
    • Laws of Manu
  11. The four stages of life
    • Student
    • Househoulder
    • Ascetic(sadhu)
    • Homeless wanderer(sannyasin)
  12. The Bhagavad Gita
    Song of god
  13. Bhakti/bhakti yoga
    The way of devotion
  14. Puja
    Offering to a god or vip
  15. Ahisma
    Non-violence
  16. Vardhamana Mahavira
    • Most recent jina/trithankara
    • Five auspicious events
    • Conception
    • Birth
    • Renunciation
    • Enlightenment
    • Final release
  17. Jinas
    Teachers of jainism who have attained kevalajinana(infinite knowledge)
  18. Digambara and Svetambara
    • Scripture
    • Community (four tirthas)
    • Monks
    • Nuns
    • Laymen
    • Laywomen
    • Clothing
    • Caste
  19. Mahavrata (The Five Principles)
    • Non-violence
    • Truthfulness
    • Non-stealing
    • Sexual purity
    • Non-possession
  20. Pratikramana
    Jains repentance of sins
  21. The Triple Gem of Buddhism
    • Buddha
    • Dharma (teaching)
    • Sangha (community)
  22. Nirvana
    • Unconditioned reality
    • Final release upon death
    • Will not be reborn
  23. The Four Noble Truths
    • All life entails suffering(duhkha)
    • The cause of suffering is desire/thirst(trishna)
    • Removing desire, removes suffering
    • The way to remove desire is to follow the eightfold path
  24. The Eightfold Path (�right�=�skillful�)
    • Right view
    • Right intentions
    • Right speech
    • Right action-not killing
    • Right livelihood-not being involved
    • Right effort-clear mind
    • Right concentration-
    • Right mindfulness
  25. Tripitaka
    • The three baskets of sacred texts-written in pali
    • 1-sutra(discourse-sermens)
    • 2-vinaya(monastic discipline)
    • 3-abhidharma(additional teachings)
  26. Sangha- third gem
    The right way
  27. Theravada Buddhism
    • The way of the elders
    • Oldest living form of Buddhism
    • Four noble truths
    • SE Asia
    • Monasticism
  28. Arhat
    Spiritual practitioner
  29. Mahayana Buddhism
    • �greater vehicle�
    • East Asia
    • Bodhisattvas
  30. Bodhisattva
    Enlightened existence
  31. Pure Land Buddhism
    • Amida, the Buddha of infinite light
    • Pure land
    • Faith in amida
    • Namu Amida Batsu
  32. Chan/Zen Buddhism
    • Originated in China
    • Emphasis on meditation and experiential wisdom
    • satori
  33. Tibetan Buddhism
    • Spread in Tibet in 8th century CE
    • Merged with Tibetan Folk and magic traditions
    • Mandalas
  34. Confucianism
    Chinese ethical and philosophical system
  35. Confucius
    • Analects is about him
    • Tian
    • Relationship to social order
  36. Tian
    Heaven
  37. Five Relationships
    • Ruler/minister
    • Father/son
    • Husband/wife
    • Elder/younger
    • Friend/friend
  38. The Analects
    The written words and acts of Confucius
  39. Daoism
    • Origins contemporary with Confucius
    • Critique of Confucianism
    • Harmony with the Dao
    • Philosophical vs Religious
  40. The Daodejing
    • Laozi
    • 350 BC
    • Poetic
    • Cryptic
  41. Laozi
    • founder of Daoism
    • mystic pholosopher of ancient China
  42. The Dao
    • The true dao cannot be defined
    • Prior to the universe
    • Source of creation
    • Pervades reality
    • Impersonal force not diety
    • Mysterious
    • Model for behavior
    • Source of yin and yang
  43. Wuwei
    Non-action
  44. Daoist alchemy
    Mysterical Dao
  45. Guru Nanak
    • Early History
    • Mystical experiences
    • A movement forms
  46. Onkar
    • Formless
    • Resisdes in the human heart
    • Devotion to Onkar expressed inwardly
  47. Adi Granth
    • First book
    • Devotional poems
    • Principal sacred texts
    • Dasam Granth and other writings
  48. Khalsa
    • Pure ones- elite group
    • Egalitarian group
    • Five K�s
    • Uncut hair
    • Wearing of a comb
    • Steel dagger or sword
    • Steel ring
    • shorts
  49. Guruship
    • God
    • Teacher
    • Scripture
    • Community
  50. Gurdwara
    • Gateway to Guru
    • Place of worship for the Sikhs
  51. Torah
    Law/instruction
  52. The Maccabean Revolt
    Attempted to suppress a jewish revolt and jewish traditions
  53. Synagogues
    House of prayer
  54. Rabbi
    • Teacher of torad
    • scholar not a priest
  55. Mishnah
    Oral torah consisting of six orders
  56. Talmud
    • Contains the mishnah and gemara.
    • Central text of Judaism.
  57. Midrash
    • A way of interpreting biblical stories.
    • �to study�
  58. Orthodox Judaism
    • Preservation of jewish tradition
    • Attempt to maintain obligations of torah
  59. Reformed Judaism
    Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the surrounding culture
  60. The trefa banquet
    • Hebrew Union College banquet
    • Ordination of four rabbis(first class)
    • Ordination ceremony an example of unity and goodwill
    • Banquet afterwards
    • Clams, crab, shrimp, frog legs
  61. Reformed Judaism�s Pittsburgh Platform
    • Judiasm the highest conception of the god idea
    • Modern scientific research not antagonistic to Judaism
    • Ceremonies should elevate and sanctify lives
    • Progressice religion
  62. Conservative Judaism
    • Mediating position between orthodox and reform
    • Develops primarily in the united states
    • Split from orthodox
    • Conserving tradition with historical precedent
    • Older traditions kept
    • More recent additions abandoned
  63. Reconstructionist Judaism
    • Negation of supernaturalism
    • God as process/power
    • Negation of jewish chosenness
    • Ideas and beliefs that contradict modern belief should be eliminated
  64. The Shoah/Holocaust
    • The jews are �our misfortune�
    • The rise of hitler
    • Christian anit-Semitism
    • The death camps
  65. Responses to the Shoah-don�t need
    • Richard Rubenstein
    • Emil fackenheim
    • Elie wiesel
    • Irving Greenberg
  66. Tonakh
    • Torah
    • Prophets
    • writings
  67. Sabbath
    Day of rest and worship.
  68. Yom Kippur
    • Day of atonement
    • 25hr period of fasting and prayer
  69. Hanukkah
    • 8 days commemorating the 2nd temple
    • Passover
    • Story of exodus
  70. Jesus
    3bc-30ce
  71. Baptism
    Ritual washing
  72. Eucharist
    • Communion
    • Cracker and wine
  73. Paul
    author of 13 of the 27 books
  74. Gnosticism(knowledge)
    is a set of diverse, religious movements united in the teaching that the world was created by an imperfect god, Yaldabaoth sometimes referred to as the demiurge.
  75. Canon
    is a list of books considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular religious community.
  76. Constantine(the great)
    Under his rule, Christianity rose to become the dominant religion in the Roman Empire
  77. Orthodox Christianity
    New testament compiled
  78. Icons
    is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Catholicism. More broadly the term is used in a wide number of contexts for an image, picture, or representation
  79. The Inquisition
    • Ecclesiastical(Christian church) court
    • Control of heretics(people with unconventional beliefs) for their own good.
    • Conversion of jews and muslims
    • Spanish inquisition
  80. The Catholic Reformation
    • The council of trent(1545)-1563)
    • Two sources
    • Internal
    • Response to Protestantism
    • Solidified dogmas(religious belief)
  81. Sacraments(Catholicism)
    • Baptism
    • Marriage
    • Conformation
    • Confession or reconciliation
    • Orders
    • Eucharist
    • Last rites(�extreme unction(anointing with oil))
  82. Second Vatican Council(1962-1965)
    • Liturgy- style of worsihp
    • Identity of the church
    • Relationship of the church to the world
    • Relationship with other religions
    • Role of men as priests
    • Role of women as nuns
  83. The Protestant Reformation
    • Reforming the catholic church
    • Scripture alone as a source of guidance
    • Changes in political structures
    • Emphasis on transcendent authority of god
    • Emphasis on sole authority of Christ to save sinners
    • Adherence to biblical teaching alone
    • Belief in the transformation of human society
  84. Martin Luther
    • Disappointed with catholic teaching justification by faith
    • Begain an intellectual shift toward the self as the locus for thought
  85. John Calvin
    • 1509-1564
    • Looked up to luther commited to humanist project
    • Read bible like a legal document concerned with the creation of a holy commonwealth
  86. Henry VIII
    • led to the separation of the Church of England from papal(pope) authority,
    • the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and
    • establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
  87. Presbyterian �five points�
    • inerrancy of scripture
    • Virgin birth of christ
    • Substitutionary atonement(making reparations for sins made)
    • Bodily resurrection
    • Miracles
    • No dominant leader
  88. Muhammad
    is regarded as the founder of the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims, the last prophet of Islam as taught by the Qur'an
  89. Mecca
    Pilgrimage site
  90. The Ka�bah
    Black box structure with images of over 360 deities
  91. The hijrah
    Muhammad escape to medina
  92. Medina
    city
  93. Qur�an
    The �eternal and final� word of God
  94. The Caliphates
    refers to the first system of government established in Islam, and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah
  95. Sunni Islam(75%)
    • The people of the Sunnah
    • The decision of the ummah
    • Caliph a political leader
  96. Shi�a Islam(25%)
    • Shi�ite- �the followers of Ali�
    • Imami- �twelve�
    • Isma�ili- �sevener�
    • Occultations and eschatology
  97. Sufism
    • Mystical approach to islam
    • Tasswwuf- from the word for wool
    • Asceticism and devotionalism
    • Shaykh- spiritual leader
    • Dhikr- rememberance(names, songs, dance)
    • The friends of god and devotion at their shrines
  98. The Five Pillars of Islam
    • The shahadah-bearing witness
    • Salat- prayer
    • Zakat- almsgiving
    • Ramadan - fasting
    • The Hajj- pilgrimage
  99. Shari�ah law
    • �law of god�
    • Five categories
    • Halal-lawful and obligatory
    • Mustahabb-recommended
    • Mubah- neither necessary or un
    • Makruh- reprehensible
    • Haram- forbidden
  100. Hadith-extra-
    • quranic sayings of the prophet
    • 6 canonical collections
    • Considered only second to the Qur�an in authority
  101. Mosque
    Place of worship
  102. Jihad
    Religious duty of muslims
  103. Islamic Fundamentalism
    • Return to the fundamentals
    • Innovation and heresy(an opinion or belief that contradicts established religious teaching)
    • Rejection of modern culture
    • Embrace of modern technology
    • Dualistic
    • Feeling of being dispossessed
  104. Wahabism
    • Religious political movement
    • Gov�t of Saudi arabi
  105. Islamic Revolution in Iran
    • Relationship between the shah and the west
    • Khomeini exiled
    • Student-led revolt
    • Islamic republic
  106. Nation of Islam
    • W.D. Fard
    • Elijah Muhammad
    • Malcolm X
  107. Malcolm X
    • Born Malcolm little
    • One of Elijah muhammed�s followers
    • Best known advocate of nation of islam in 50s and 60s
  108. Cosmogony
    Study of the origin and evolution of the universe
  109. Mana
    an impersonal force or quality that resides in people, animals, and (debatably) inanimate objects.
  110. Shaman
    Medicine man
  111. Yoruba religion
    • West Africa
    • Mostly southwest Nigeria
  112. Olodumare / Olorun
    • Ruler of the heavens
    • Father of the gods
  113. Orishas
    They rule over the forces of nature and the endeavors of humanity.
  114. Yoruba conceptions of human beings
    • Ara
    • Emi
    • Ori
  115. Yoruba afterlife
    • Reincarnation
    • Appearance before Olodumare
    • Choosing one�s faith
    • Forgetfulness
  116. Dream guessing rite
    • Others have to guess your dreams
    • Important to everyone
  117. Myth of the Three Sisters
    • Matrilineal societies
    • Connection between women, food, and soil
    • Corn, beans, and squash
    • Sustainers of life
    • together, eaten together, and celebrated together
  118. Characteristics of Lakota Religion
    • Native American tribe
    • Dwellers of the prairie
    • 7 Sioux tribes
  119. Dreamtime/Dreaming
    • Rooted in local geography
    • Tracking dreams
  120. Totemism
    Belief in which humans are said to have kinship or mystical relationship with a spirit-being, such as an animal or plant
  121. Nongqawuse
    • Xhosa
    • South-east African tribe
    • Prophetess
    • Visions that resulted in the cattle-killing crisis of 1856
    • Promised resurrection of the dead
    • Almost killed the people
  122. The Ghost Dance Movement
    • Religious movement
    • Reaction to government submission
    • Destruction of whites(wasichus)
  123. Wovoka(Jack Wilson)
    • Religious leader
    • Founded ghost dance movement
    • �cutter�
    • Paiute mystic
  124. Wounded Knee Massacre
    • Wounded Knee Creek
    • US(James W Forsyth)vs. Sioux(Spotted Elk)
    • 300 indians killed
  125. The �Lost Generation�
    • American writers who were rebelling against what America
    • had become
  126. The Sun Dance
    • Once a year, during summer solstice
    • 4 to 8 days
    • No true end to life
    • Death and rebirth
    • Sacred pole
    • Hung up until flesh rips
  127. Joseph Smith
    • Born 1805 in Vermont
    • Moved to upstate new york
  128. First Vision
    • None of the churches are right
    • Restore to the church through Joseph
  129. Moroni
    • Angel visits joseph when he is 18
    • Golden plates that will help restore the true church
    • 1827 he retrieves plates
    • Urim and thummim
    • Written in Egyptian
  130. The Book of Mormon
    Translates version of the golden plates
  131. Reorganized Latter Day Saints
    • Believe in only one god
    • Mormons
    • Believe that god was once a man
    • Believe in many gods
  132. Brigham Young
    an early president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
  133. The Mormon Battalion
    • Religious military unit
    • Served during the Mexican-American war
  134. Mountain Meadows Massacre
    • Mormon Attacks on the baker-Fancher emigrant wagon train
    • Southern Utah
    • 120 emigrant deaths
  135. Baptism for the dead
    Baptism of a living person for someone who died without being baptized
  136. Celestial Marriage
    Eternal marriage
  137. Degrees of Glory(Three)
    • Celestial Kingdom
    • Terrestrial Kingdom
    • Telestial Kingdom
  138. Plural Marriage
    • Polygamy
    • Men have multiple wives
  139. Mormon Fundamentalism
    belief in the validity of selected fundamental aspects of Mormonism as taught and practiced in the nineteenth century, particularly during the administration of Brigham Young.
  140. Reed Smoot
    • one of the twelve apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-
    • day Saints
  141. Mitt Romney
    • Mormon missionary in France
    • Mormon Governor of Massachusetts in 2002
    • Ran for president
  142. Apocalypticism
    Belief of an apocalypse
  143. Charles Taze Russell
    • Presbyterian childhood
    • Interest in biblical prophecy
    • Bible students
    • Prolific writer
    • Doctrines
    • Advent of Christ and the millennium
    • The 144,00
    • Elect class(little flock)
    • Great company
    • Restored Israel
  144. �Judge� Joseph Rutherford
    • New world society
    • Golden age (awake)
    • Publishers
    • Kingdom halls
    • Churches
    • The �invisible� coming of jesus in 1914
  145. Jehovah�s Witnesses
    • Objectors of war
    • Refusal of Saluting the flag
    • Court cases over doctrinal issues
    • Nazi Germany
    • Beliefs
    • No blood transfusions
    • Torture stake |
    • Rejection of trinity(father, son and holy spirit)
  146. New World Translation
    • Evangelism
    • Communion is referred to as the lord�s evening meal-only on passover
    • Kingdom Halls
  147. L. Ron Hubbard
    • Freud�s theories
    • Studied eastern religions
    • Studied math, engineering, and nuclear physics
    • Adventure fiction writer
    • Becomes part of navy reserve during WWII
    • Injured, but recovers(ulcers)
    • Continues science fiction
    • Developes a theory of mind called dianetics
  148. Dianetics
    • Gets rid of the unwanted sensations, unpleasant emotions and psychosomatic ills that block one�s life and happiness
    • It is the route to happy, health, high IQ people
    • Full human potential
    • Two components to the mind
    • Analytical
    • Thinks, observes, remembers
    • Reactive
    • Operates in moments of intense pain
    • Unconsciousness
    • Recording called engram
    • Create unknowing and unwarranted fears
    • Hold people back
    • Goal
    • To become clear of engrams
    • Occurs through a process called auditing
  149. Auditing
    • Conducted by an auditor
    • Person seeking auditing is called preclear
    • Preclear asked a series of questions by auditor
    • Processes of questions depending on preclear�s situation
  150. Electro-psychometer
    • Measures preclear�s mental state
    • Used to audit
  151. The �clear�
    • Someone free of engrams
    • Being clear brings happiness, fulfillment
    • The reactive mind is gone
  152. Scientology
    • 1954
    • Study of truth or knowledge about knowledge
    • Pragmatic approach
    • View of humanity
    • Drugs and chemicals are poisons
    • Lead to susceptibility to other diseases
    • Decrease mental awareness and alertness
    • Biochemical are barrier to spiritual freedom
  153. Three parts of human
    • Spirit, or thetan:The Individual
    • Mind: Communication and control between thetan and environment
    • Body: Body is not the person
  154. States of existence
    Bridge of total freedom
  155. Operating Thetan
    • One who can handle things without having to use a body of physical mean
    • Not controlled by MEST(matter, energy, space, time), but controlling them
    • Rising to eternity, engaging one�s immortality
    • Different levels
    • Information is secret
  156. Globalization
    • Interdependence of cultures
    • Technology
    • Economics
    • Media
  157. People using technology and media to effect world
    • Martin Luther
    • Mohandas Ganhi
    • Osama bin Laden
  158. Three forms of religious globalization
    • Diaspora
    • Transitional religions
    • Religious pluralism
    • Toleration
  159. Modern to Postmodern
    • Collapse of metanarratives
    • Loss of center
    • Pluralism and relativism
    • Open-minded
  160. Responses to globalization
    • Violence towards other religions
    • Hybridism: Transformation of religion
    • Unconscious borrowing of ideas
    • Mutual transformation
    • Secularization

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