chapter 7

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chapter 7
2011-04-25 23:02:36
earth system

recycling of the element: the carbon cycle
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  1. biosphere
    the part of the earth that supports life, including the oceans, atmosphere, land surface, and soils) as rocks weather, volcanoes erupt, and nitrogen is made available from the atmosphere by chemical transformations stimulated by lightninig discharge.
  2. nutrients
    are substances, normally obtained in the diet, that are essential to organisms
  3. inorganic carbon
    the carbon CO 2 is inorganic carbon-- it is not associated with compounds formed by living organisms and it does not contain carbon--carbon or hydrogen bonds.
  4. organic carbon
    • our carbon atom, as part of the leaf
    • some leaves are consumed and digested by animals.
  5. steady state
    is a condition in which the state of a system component is constant with time
  6. residence time
    is defined asw the average length of time a substance spends in a given resevoir that is at steady state
  7. characteristic response time
    when a system is not steady state
  8. characteristic response time
    when a system is not at steady state
  9. oxidized carbon
    • is carbon that is combined with oxygen.
    • examples of oxidized carbon include the carbon in the skeletons o f some organisms and atmospheric CO 2.
  10. Reduced carbon
    is carbon that is combined mainly with other carbon atoms, hydrogen or nitrogen
  11. primary productivity
    is the amount of organic matter produced by photosynthesis in a unit time over a unit area of Earth's surface.
  12. the amount depends on the population size of primary produce by photosynthesis in a unit time over a unit area of Earth's surface
    primary productivity
  13. primary producers
    the amount depends on the population size of primary producers that is, plants (or other types of photosynthesizer or even chemosynthesizers that provide energy other organisms can use.
  14. consumers
    such organisms, including animals are called consumers
  15. biomass
    is the total mass of organic matter in living organisms in a particular resevoir
  16. fermentation
    is an anerobic form of metabolisms in which both oxidized carbon (in CO2) and reduced carbon (often in methane are produced
  17. photic zone
    is the uppermost part of the oceanic water column where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis: about the upper 100m of teh water column in the open ocean, and in shallower waters near shore, where water clarity is reduced
  18. zooplankton
    are free floating marine consumers, including small invertebrates and microorganisms such as foraminefera and radio larians
  19. biological pump
    it is balanced by the conveyor-belt-like thermohaline cirulationn of teh ocean (chapter 5), which brings nutrients and carbon--rich waters back to the surface, replenishing the nutrients and carbon removed by the biological pump.
  20. redfield ratios
    in honor of alfred C. Redfield the oceanographer who first described this phenomenon