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2010-02-26 00:52:44
cardio drugs

pharmacology prototypes
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  1. digoxin (Lanoxin)
    cardiac glycoside
    • Action: increases myocardial contraction, cardiac output, decreases ventr, rate
    • use: to treat HF, atrial tachy, flutter, or fib.
    • Side effects: anorexia, N, V, headache, blurred vision, halos, fatigue, confusion
    • Adverse: Brady, visual disturb, *AV block, cardiac dys
    • Contra: V dys, 2nd or 3rd heart block, renal disease, low potassium
  2. hydrochlorothiazide (Diuril)
    Thiazide diuretic
    • Action: distal tubules, sodium, potassium, water excretion, decrease preload & cardiac output
    • Use: increase urine output, treat HTN, edema from HF, cirrhosis, renal dysfunction
    • Side effects: dizziness, vertigo, weakness, N, V, D, hyperglycemia, C, rash
    • Adverse: Severe dehydration, hypotension,
    • Contra: renal failure, hepatic cirrhosis, diabetes, gout, lupus
  3. furosemide (Lasix)
    loop diuretic
    • Action: Inhibits sodium and water reabsorption from the loop of Henle & distal tubules
    • Use: to treat fluid retention/ caused by HF, renal dysfunction, cirrhosis, HTN, pulmonary edema
    • Side effects: N, D, vertigo, cramping, rash, headache, weakness, blurred vision
    • Adverse: severe dehydration, hypotension, *renal failure, thrombocytopenia
    • Contra: severe electrolyte imbalance, hypovolemia, anuria, hepatic coma, sensitivity to sulfa
  4. triamterene (Aldactone)
    potassium sparing diuretic
    • Action: acts on distal tubules to promote sodium & water excretion, potassium retention
    • Use: increase urine output, treat fluid retention
    • Side effects: N, V, D, rash, dizziness, headache, weakness, drymouth
    • Adverse: *severe hyperkalemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia
    • Contra: Severe kidney or hepatic disease, severe hyperkalemia Caution: renal or hepatic dysfunction, diabetes
  5. mannitol (Osmitrol)
    Osmotic diuretic
    • Action: inhibits reabsorption of electrolytes & water, affects pressure of glomerular
    • Use: to treat increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edema
    • Side effect: temp volume expansion, hypo/hypernatremia, kalemia, dehydration, blurred vision, dry mouth
    • Adverse: Pulmonary congestion, fluid/electro imbalance, *convulsions
    • Contra: hypersensitive, dehydration, preg, breast, intracranial bleeding
  6. nitroglycerine (Nitrostat)
    • Action: decreases myocardial demand for oxygen, decreases preload by dilating veins-decreases afterload
    • Use: to control angine pectoris
    • Side effects: N, V, headache, dizziness, syncope, weakness, flush, confusion, pallor, dry mouth
    • Adverse: Hypotension, reflex tachy, paradoxical brady, *circulatory collapse
    • Contra: marked hypotension, AMI, increases intracranial presure, severe anemia, renal or hepatic dis.
  7. acebutolol (Sectral)
    beta1 blocker, beta antagonist
    • Action: blocks beta1 in cardiac tissues
    • Use: to aid in treatment of stable vent dys, angina pectoris, hypertension
    • Side effects: dizziness, N, headache, hypotension, diaphoresis, fatigue, C, D, impotence
    • Adverse: palpitations w/withdrawl, *agranulocytosis, bronchospasm
    • Contra: 2nd & 3rd heart block, severe brady, HF cardiogenic shock, major surgery, renal hepatic impair,