Intro to pharm.

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Author:
katerinex3
ID:
81855
Filename:
Intro to pharm.
Updated:
2011-04-26 00:41:00
Tags:
drugs
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Description:
final exam drugs
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  1. Pilocarpine
    • alkaloid --> directly acting
    • cholinoceptor activating
    • natural alkaloid
    • well-absorbed
    • uses limited --> opthalmic use
    • muscarinic agonist*
  2. Bethanechol
    • not susceptible to cholinesterase nor nicotinic action.
    • susceptible to muscarinic action.
  3. Pralidoxime
    • "2-PAM"
    • can treat the phosphorylation of enzymes of the ireversible organophosphates (pesticides, nerve gas agents- sarin) by reactivating ACHe if not AGED.
    • doesn't get into the brain.
    • seems to "pick-off" the phosphorous group of ACHe & reactivates it.
    • best to be given to "fresh" phosphorylated ACHe.
    • seems to work pereferentially at the skeletal N receptor.
  4. Carbachol
    • not susceptible to cholinesterase.
    • more susceptible to nicotinic action than muscarinic.
    • ester--> directly acting.
    • not susceptible to antagonism by atropine as other esters.
  5. ACh
    • agonist for both muscarinic & nicotinic cholinergic receptors.
    • released from parasympathetic terminals wil activate M receptors.
    • released from parasympathetic terminal can interact with presynaptic receptors on the terminals to reduce further transmitter release.
    • -on parasympathetic terminals, decrease ACh
    • -on sympathetic terminals, decrease E / NE
    • ester --> directly acting
    • susceptible to cholinesterase, muscarinic, and nicotinic action.
  6. Echothiophate
    • irreversible inhibitor of cholinesterase.
    • used in treatment of glaucoma.
    • organophosphorous compound.
    • exception to OP's --> poorly absorbed.
    • extremely potent choline derivative.
    • long acting ( > 100 hours).
  7. Endrophonium
    • indirectly acting cholinergic agonist.
    • short acting (5 minutes).
    • reversible.
    • quarternary ammonium alcohol (simple alcohol).
    • cholinesterase inhibitor.
  8. Physostigmine
    • indirectly acting cholinergic agonist.
    • intermediate acting (0.5-6 hrs).
    • reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
    • enters the CNS b/c no (+) charge.
  9. Neostigmine
    • indirectly acting cholinergic agonist.
    • intermediate acting (0.5- 6 hrs).
    • reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
    • carbamic acid ester with tertiary or quartenary ammonium.
    • mixed function.
    • charged --> poorly absorbed.

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