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A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
An approach that applies the top-down model of community organization to alter ecosystem characteristics. For example, ecologists can prevent algal blooms and eutrophication by altering the density of higher-level consumers in lakes instead of by using chemical treatments.
The total mass of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat.
occurs where no soil exists
type of ecological succession that occurs in an area where there were originally no organisms present and where soil has not yet formed.
A type of succession that occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil or substrate intact.
A species that is not necessarily abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on community structure by the nature of its ecological role or niche.
is the result of changes induced by the vegetation itself
a disturbance to communitites that usually reduces species
- human disturbance
- greatest impact on biological communities worldwide
Two key factors in equatiorial-polar gradients of species richness are probably
- evolutionary hx and climate
- declines in equatoriial
two main climate factors correlated with biodiversity are
solar energy and water availability
evaporation of water form soild plus transpiration of water from plants
The total evaporation of water from an ecosystem, including evaporation from soil and the outside of plants, as well as the transpiration of water from within plants through stomata.
Species richness on islands depends on island size, distance, from the mainland, immigration, and rates of extinction
maintains that there will be a leveling off of species
Island equilibrium model
can change a community structure quickly
ig. coral reef being decimated by white band disease
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