Chem3BTest3

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victimsofadown
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81963
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Chem3BTest3
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2011-04-26 14:50:51
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Chem3BTest3
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  1. Labels on an energy diagram
    • ΔH - change in energy (products - reactants)
    • ΔE - energy of activation (reactants - transition state)
    • Transition state
    • flow of reaction
    • Energy in KCal
  2. heterolytic vs homolytic
    • heterolytic - uneaven break. Creates + and - ions.
    • homolytic - even break. Creates free radicals.
  3. rate determining step?
    Step with largest ΔE
  4. C+ name? C- name?
    Carbonium, Carbanion
  5. Electrophile vs nucleophile
    • Electrophile - posative, looking for something negative
    • Nucleophile - negative or nonbonding e-, looking for something posative
  6. List various natural condensation polymers by type
    • Polyesters (DNA & RNA)
    • Polyamides (proteins)
    • Polyethers (polysaccharides)
  7. List various man-made condensation polymers by type
    • Polyesters (clothing)
    • Polyamide (nylon)
  8. Markovnikov's rule (short version)
    in an addition reaction H attaches to the C w/ more H
  9. block polymer vs sequence polymer
    • block - sequence is not important
    • sequence - sequence is important
  10. List various addition polymers
    • polyethylene (rain coat, plastic bag)
    • teflon (nonstick pans)
  11. Activators vs deactivators in terms of e-
    • Activators - e- donators
    • Deactivators - e- withdrawers
  12. Saytzeff's rule?
    (dehydration of secondary alcohol) H removed from C with less H attached
  13. What is a competing reaction?
    Same reactants in different conditions produce different products
  14. Everything about methanol
    • common name: meythl alcohol
    • consumer name: wood alcohol
    • Toxic in body, can cause blindness
  15. General alcohol characteristics
    • Popular as solvent (less toxic than acetone)
    • highly soluble if less than 6 C
    • can bring down fever by pulling H2O out
  16. Everything about ethanol
    • Common name: ethyl alcohol
    • consumer name: alcohol
    • Denautured alcohol is undrinkable (addition of methanol or methanal)
  17. Everything about 2-propanol
    • Common name: isopropyl alcohol
    • Consumer name: rubbing alcohol
  18. Everything about 1,2-ethanediol
    • Common name: etyhlene glycol
    • Consumer name: antifreeze
    • Polyalcohol
  19. Everything about 1,2,3-propanetriol
    • Common name: glycerol
    • Soaps, lotions, lowers freezing point on bacterial media
  20. Most stable alkene
    = closest to center (most C on either side)
  21. Various isotope information
    • 12C - normal
    • 13C - heavy
    • 14C - radioactive
    • 1H - normal
    • 2H - heavy (deuterium)
    • 3H - radioactive
    • 16O - normal
    • 18O - radioactive
  22. Phenol behavior + examples
    • Behave like benzene AND alcohol, VERY acidic
    • antiseptics, poison ivy, herbs/spices, toxins
  23. What do + ions end in?
    -ium
  24. Aldehyde examples
    • scents of vanilla, cinnamon, roses
    • bug candles
  25. Ketone examples
    musque, sex hormones, progesterone, cortisone
  26. Everything about methanal
    • Common name: formaldehyde
    • Biological preservative
    • building materials
    • degrades easily
    • toxic
  27. Everything about ethanal
    • Common name: acetaldehyde
    • body oxidizes alcohol to this
    • sickly sweet smell
    • rotting fruit
  28. everything about propanone
    • Common name: acetone
    • Toxic to fish
    • Has effects on brain (huffing)
    • Cleaner/solvent
  29. Everything about 2-butanone
    • Common name: MEK
    • Important solvent in construction
  30. What is a Qual scheme?
    Testing to see what's there. Putting subtance through various tests (reduction, BP, Tollens).
  31. Everything about methanoic acid
    • Common name: formic acid
    • In bee stings/ant bites
    • Monoprotic
  32. Everything about ethanoic acid
    • Common name: acetic acid
    • Monoprotic
  33. Everything about propanoic acid
    Monoprotic
  34. Everything about butanoic acid
    • common name: butyric acid
    • Rancid butter
  35. What is a fatty acid?
    Long chain carboxylic acid (12+ C) with EVEN NUMBER of C
  36. Carboxylic acid characteristics
    • Water soluble to 5C
    • Stronger hold on H (more e- donating groups on chain) = weaker acid
  37. What is a soap?
    The sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid
  38. Everything about ethanedioic acid
    • common name: oxalic acid
    • diacid
    • found in veggies
    • toxic in high amounts
    • high concentration in clothing cleaners
    • removes rust
  39. Everything about succinic acid
    • 4 Cs
    • diacid
    • Amino acids
    • Biological processes
  40. Everything about malonic
    • 3 C's
    • Barbituates
    • diacid
  41. Everything about citric acid
    • Triacid
    • citrus fruit
    • sour taste
    • kreb's cycle
    • buffering agent in shampoo
    • alkaseltzer
  42. Ester characteristics?
    many smells: pears, rum, bananas, oranges, pineapples, apricots
  43. Alternate name for hydrophobic / hydorphilic
    lipophilic / lipophobic
  44. SOAP vs detergent
    • SOAP - natural - salt of a fatty acid
    • detergent - synthetic - salt of a sulfonic acid (other groups may be attached)
  45. How was soap made?
    • ___gyleride + NaOH -> glycerol + soap
    • Used to be made with lard and lye
  46. Everything about aromatic amines
    • Toxic
    • Fish smell

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