Nutrition CH.4.-Carbs

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Nutrition CH.4.-Carbs
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2010-02-26 03:14:39
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nutrition chapter 4 carbs
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Nutrition notes Chapter 4 carbohydrates
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  1. Carbohydrates
    • composed of single or mutiple sugars
    • carbon, hydroen, oxygen
    • main fuel source for body
  2. Where do carbohydrates come from
    photosynthesis
  3. Carbohydrates
    • simple - Mono and disaccharides
    • complex - oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and fiber
  4. simple carbohydrates
    monosaccharides (single sugars)
  5. Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
    • Glucose: "blood sugar," dextrose
    • fructose: fruit sugar
    • galactose
  6. Disaccharides
    • simple sugars
    • linked pairs of single sugars
  7. sucrose
    • (glucose + fructose)
    • table sugar
  8. lactose
    • (galactose + glucose)
    • milk products
  9. maltose
    • (glucose +glucose)
    • fermintation, alcohol products
  10. oligosaccharides
    • 3-10 monosaccharides
    • naturally in foods
    • some foremed in gut
    • cant be digested by human enzymes
  11. complex carbohydrates
    polysaccharides
  12. polysaccharides
    • starch
    • glycogen
  13. starch
    • stroage from of glucose in plants
    • amylose and amylopectin
  14. glycogen
    • storage for carbohydrates in humans
    • similar to starch
    • found in liver and muscle
  15. Glycogen
    • liver glycogen ( 1/3 of glycogen)
    • muscle glycogen (2/3 of glycogen)
  16. Dietary Fiber
    • indigestible
    • provide no energy
    • insouluble fiber
    • soluable finer
    • pre- and pro-biotics
  17. insoulublue fibers
    cellulose: whole grains, bran
  18. soluable fiber
    pectin: fruit, oats
  19. Prebiotics
    • substances that promote growth of bacteria
    • origosaccharides
  20. probiotics
    • living organisms
    • health benefit
  21. beneficial effects
    • promote feeling of fullness
    • helps prevent constipation --> prevents diverticulosis
    • reduces blood cholesterol level --> binds to cholesterol in small intestine; cholestrol cant be absorbed
    • slows digestion and absorption of carbs
    • may reduce risk of colon cancer
  22. Recommended dietary fiber intake
    • adults = 25-38 g/day
    • Dv = 25 g/day
    • Avergae US intake = 14-17g/day
    • best to obtain through diet
  23. carbohydrates needs
    • RDA is 130 gram day for adults
    • avearge US intake is 180-330g
    • recomendations --> 45-65% of total calories should come from carbs
  24. Carbohydrates recommendations
    • Whole-grains
    • 50% of carbs intake should be in the form of whole grains
  25. Carbohydrate recomendations
    • whole-grains
    • 50% of carbs intake should be in the form of whole grains
  26. What is a whole grain?
    • Made up of Bran, Gram, endosperm
    • whole grain have all three
    • refined grains hav bran and grem removed
  27. Sources of whole grains
    • whole weat flour
    • barley
    • oatmeal
    • brown rice
    • popcorn
  28. recommendation for simple sugar intake
    • low nutrient density
    • added to food and beverages
    • less than or equal to 10% of total Kcal/day
    • avg. U.S. intake = 16% of total Kcal/day
  29. sweetners
    • provide calories along with sweetness
    • table sugar
    • honey
    • high fructose corn syrup
  30. High fructose corn syrup
    • from corn
    • use enzymes to convert glucose to fructose
    • 55% of fructose is in soft drinks
    • 42% of fructose in baked goods, desserts, etc.
  31. carbohydrate digestion
    Goal: breakdown dietary carbohydrate into monosaccharides
  32. Digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth
    • starch digestion begins
    • salivary amylase
    • short duration
  33. after absorption
    absorped monosaccharides travel to the liver
  34. Liver can:
    • release glucose into blodstream
    • transform monosaccharides (galactose and fructose) into glucose
    • stores as glycogen
  35. lactose maldigestion
    • reduction in lactase
    • severe causes are called lactose intolerance
  36. Reductioin in lactase
    • lactose is undigested and not absorped
    • lactose is metabolized by large intestinal bacteria
    • causing gas, cramping, bloating, diarrhea
  37. Functions of carbohydrates
    • supplies energy ( 4Kcal/g)
    • protein sparring
    • prevent ketosis
    • sweetner
  38. What if we don't have enough carbohydrates in our diet?
    • Need glucose to burn fat effeciently --> carbs prevent ketosis
    • Body will use proteins to make glucose --> carbs have a protein sparing effect
  39. what happens ot blood glucose after a meal
    increased blood glucsoe
  40. Blood goes into cells because
    • cells need energy
    • having a high blood glucose level causes diabetes
  41. Regulation of blood glucose
    • hyperglycemia - high blood glucose
    • hypoglycemia - low blood glucsoe
  42. body built in regulation system to ensure balanced blood sugar levels
    • in hyperglycemia after meal
    • in hypglycemia when meal is missed
  43. Role of pancreas
    • release of insulin
    • release of glucagon
  44. epinephrine
    • "fight or flight response"
    • breakdown glycogen
    • reaises blood glucose
    • advantage: the effects of epinephrine works alot faster than glucogen
  45. Diseases of blood Glucose Regulation
    • Diabetes Mellitus (hyperglycemia)
    • hypoglycemia
  46. Diabetes Mellitus
    • disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
    • charcterized by elevated blood glucose
    • a disesase in which the body dose not produce or properly use insulin
  47. Type 1 Diabetes
    • symtpons are more acute but treatable , you do not produce insulin
    • usually found in children, use to be called juivenal diabetes
  48. Type 2 diabetes
    • doesnt use insulin properly
    • use to oly effect people in their 50's but now seen in people younger and younger
  49. Diabetes during pregnancy
    Gestinatioal come while pregnant and after pregnancy it goes away
  50. Symptoms assocated with Diabtes
    • fatigue
    • frequent urination
    • blured vision
    • increased thirst
  51. Effects on the body
    • Pancreas (type 1) - permanet damage because of diabates (blidness)
    • Feet (circulation)
    • wound healing problems
  52. Reasons for hunger constantly
    needs energy for cells
  53. Reasons for fatigue
    cells are starving and the breakdowin of fat will go up
  54. increased urination
    diabetics are constantly thirsty because they have high blood sugar and the kidney dont filter
  55. Type 2
    • most prominent
    • 95 of all cases
    • type 1-5%
  56. Diagnosis
    • fasting blood glucsoe > 126 mg/dl
    • normal = 70 -100mg/dl1
  57. Oral glucsoe tolerance test
    • measure blood glucsoe over 2-3 hrs
    • diabetes> 200mg/dl after 2 hours (normal <140 mg/dl)
  58. Glycemic index of foods
    • blood glucose response of a given food
    • influenced by various factors
  59. High Glycemic index
    higher blood levels
  60. Low glycemic index
    lower blood glucose levels
  61. Gestional diabetes
    • pregnant women 4%
    • usually occurs late in pregnancy
    • hormones from placenta block the action of mothers insulin
    • goes away after pregnancy

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