Biology FINAL

Card Set Information

Biology FINAL
2011-05-02 00:25:08

Questions to study for biology final exam
Show Answers:

  1. The phospholipid molecules of most membranes have a:
    Hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails.
  2. A hypothetical "microbullet" shot through a phospholipid bilayer would pass the components in which order?
  3. Most of the functions of plasma membrances are carried out by:
  4. A water-soluble hormone would most likely bind to which of the following membrane proteins?
  5. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other small nonpolar molecules cross the plasma membrane through the process(es) of:
  6. Movement of a molecule against a concentration gradient is:
    Active Transport
  7. The carrier molecules used in active transport are:
  8. A single-cell freshwater organism, such as protistan, is transferred to saltwater. Which of the following is likely to happen?
    The cell shrinks
  9. A cell placed in a hypotonic solution will:
  10. If a plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, the
    turgot pressure will increase, but the cell wall prevents the cell from exploding
  11. Side A contains a 3% sucrose solution and side B has a 10% sucrose solution. The membrane separating the sides is permeable to water but impermeable to sucrose. Side A is ____ to side B.
  12. Side A contains a 3% sucrose solution and side B has a 10% sucrose solution. The membrane separating the sides is permeable to water but impermeable to sucrose. Describe the movement of water in this system:
    Water moves in both directions, but net movement is from A to B
  13. Strictly speaking, mitosis and meiosis are divisions of the:
    Nucleus and chromosomes
  14. Chromosomes and genes are replicated during
  15. Cells with two of each kind of chromosome are described by the term
  16. What is the proper sequence of mitosis:
    Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
  17. Asexually produced daughter cells are
    indentical to each other and to the parental cell
  18. Difference, or alternative, forms of the same gene are
  19. Homologous chromosomes
    Pair up during meiosis; have alleles for the same characteristics even though the gene expression may not be the same; are in pairs, one chromosome of each pair from the father and one from the mother; separate from each other during meiosis I
  20. Crossing over occurs during
    prophase I
  21. Paired homologous chromosomes are found at the spindle equator during
    metaphase I
  22. If a child more strongly resembles one parent's physical traits than the other parent's, the explanation could be due to chromosome movements during
    anaphase I
  23. Which of the following is not true of human chromosomes?
    Human gametes end up with two of each type of 23 chromosomes
  24. In Mendel's time, most people believed that
    the characteristics of parents were blended in the offspring
  25. Various forms of a gene at a given locus are called:
  26. The most accurate description of an organism with genotype AaBb is
  27. In a Punnett square, the letters withing the little boxes represent:
    Offspring Genotypes
  28. Is R is dominant to the r, the offspring of the cross of RR with rr will display the same phenotype as:
    the RR parent
  29. An individual with a genetic makeup of aaBB is said to be:
  30. An individual with a genotype of Aa Bb CC is able to produce how many different kinds of gametes?
  31. An animal has the genotype of Aa Cc DD gg. How many different gametes can it produce?
  32. Which is the smallest unit of life that can exist as a seperate entity?
  33. The most inclusive level of organization listed here is:
    d-multicelled organism
    Multicelled Organism
  34. Living organisms are different from inanimate objects because they:
    a-react to environmental stimuli
    b-exhibit massive complexity
    c-possess molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid
    d-exhibit multiple levels of organization
    e-all of these
    all of these
  35. The subatomic particle with a negative charge is:
  36. The subatomic particles with no charge is
    the neutron
  37. The Nucleus of an atom contains:
    Neutrons and Protons
  38. The atomic number is the number of
    Protons only
  39. T or F: All isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons
  40. Magnesium has 12 protons. How many electrons are in its first energy level?
  41. Magnesium has 12 protons. How many electrons are in its second energy level?
  42. Which includes the other four?
    Atoms, molecules, electrons, elements, protons
  43. An atom that gains or loses electrons becomes
    An ion
  44. True or False: In polar covalent bonds, electrons are shared equally.
  45. A dotted line connecting two molecules is a:
    Hydrogen Bond
  46. True or False? Hydrogen bonds are difficult to form and break?
  47. Hydrophobic molecules are ___ to water.
  48. The oil globules that result when a water and oil mixture is shaken are due to a ____ interaction.
  49. A reaction of an acid and a base wll produce salt and
  50. Which of the following is a naked proton?
    A hydrogen ion, an acid, a base, a hydroxyl ion, an oxygen ion
    A hydrogen ion
  51. T or F - Radioactive isotopes have an excess number of neutrons
  52. The subatomic particle with a positive charge is
  53. The atomic mass of an atom is determined by the combined masses of its
    Neutrons and Protons
  54. A single carbon atom may form as many as ___ covalent bonds with other atoms.
  55. The atom present in all organic compounds is
  56. Which is composed of a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen?
  57. Cellulose is a
    Polysaccharide found in cell walls
  58. Which of the following includes all the others?
  59. Triglycerides are:
  60. Which of the following are lipids?
    Sterols, triglycerides, oils, waxes, all of these
    All of these
  61. Amino acids are the building blocks for
  62. The sequence of amino acids is the ___ structure of proteins.
  63. The presence of which of the following features distinguishes prokaryotic cells of eukaryotic cells?
    Lack of nuclear membrane
  64. Which of the following organelles is correctly matched with its function?
    nucleus:protein synthesis
    er: heredity
    golgi bodies: packaging
    mitochondria: digestion
    cholorplasts: storage of lipids
    golgi bodies: packaging
  65. Name one of the two main functions of the nuclear envelope?
    Allows separation of DNA from cytoplasm machinery
  66. Name something found in the nucleus.
  67. What is sometimes referred to as rough or smooth depending on structure?
    Endoplasmic Reticula
  68. Where are the cells in proteins manufactures?
    Rough endoplasmic reticula
  69. What is the primary structure that packages cellular secretions for export from the cell?
    Golgi Bodies
  70. What contains enzymes, are the main organelles of intracelular digestion and can digest whole cells?
  71. What are primary cellular sites for the capture of energy from carbohydrates?
  72. Which of the following is thought to be the descendant of engulfed ancient bacteria?
  73. The fluid filled sac that may store food, ions, or water in plant cells and that is also involved in growth and fluid pressure is the:
    Central Vacuole
  74. Actin is a structural protein of
  75. Cilia and flagella are most similar in
    their composition and structure
  76. Which scientist identified the transforming substance involved in changing rough bacteria to smooth?
  77. Which researcher used viruses in research?
    Max Delbruck, Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase, Salvador Luria
    All of these
  78. DNA contains ___ but not ____
    Phosphorous, sulphur
  79. The experiments of which researchers clearly distinguished DNA and not protein as the hereditary material?
    Hershey and Chase
  80. DNA contains all of the following nitrogen containing bases except -
  81. If all of the hydrogen bonds in a DNA molecule were to break:
    The nucleotide base pairs would separate from each other
  82. The similarity of traits from one generation to another is fundamentally the result of:
    semiconservative replication
  83. After three replications of a single DNA molecule, what percent of the resulting molecules contain one strand of the "original" DNA?
  84. DNA from bacteria differs from DNA in humans in which of the following ways?
    Nucleotide sequence
  85. A linear stretch of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is called a:
  86. ___ molecules carry protein assembly instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    Messenger RNA
  87. All the different kinds of RNA are transcribed in the:
  88. Which substance is found in RNA but not in DNA?
  89. The synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template strand is
  90. The relationship between strands of RNA and DNA is
  91. Transcription occurs during:
    the synthesis of any type of RNA from a DNA template
  92. If the DNA triplets are ATG CGT then the mRNA codons are
  93. If the DNA triplets are ATG CGT the tRNA codons are:
  94. What does RNA not have?
  95. If the codon consisted of only two nucleotides, there would be how many different kinds of codons?
  96. There are how many different kinds of amino acids in proteins?
  97. What carries amino acids to ribosomes, where amino acids are linked into the primary structure of a polypeptide?
  98. All mRNA transcrips begin with:
  99. When cells stop responding to normal controls over growth and division they:
    begin to form a tumor
  100. The obvious advantage of the lactose operon is that:
    Lactose metabolizing enzymes need not be made when lactose is not present
  101. The prokaryote operon model explains gene regulation at the level of:
  102. T or F: A structural gene is associated with a lactose operon
  103. Small circular molecules of "extra" DNA in bacteria
    are plasmids
  104. One of the first successful applications of genetic engineering was the commercial production of:
  105. According to Lamarck, the characteristics of organisms change because of
    an innate drive for perfection
  106. The value of Lyell's ideas on the geologic history of the earth was the
    enormous lenths of time required for geologic events
  107. The person credited with being the codiscoverer of evolution by natural selection was
    Alfred Wallace
  108. Adhesion proteins not working, cells free to "drift"
  109. Cancer of epithelial cells
  110. Cancer of connective tissue
  111. The forelimbs of early mammals are similar in all features except
  112. The oldest fossils are:
    found buried deepest in the ground
  113. In the nineteenth century, prevailing beliefs came into conflict with findings from all BUT:
    plate tectonics
  114. Which of the following was NOT one of Darwin's observations?
    Most individuals have an equal chance to survive and reproduce
  115. The person credited with being the codiscoverer of evolution by natural selection was
    Alfred Wallace
  116. The word evolution was used in biology literally means
    heritable change
  117. Genotype is manifested in
  118. T or F: Neutral mutations are not expressed
  119. Factors that tend to reduce the size of a population regardless of its inital size are
    density-independent factors