It is the coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems
What is body alignment?
It means that the individual's center of gravity is stable
How is balance enhanced?
It is enhanced by keeping the body's center of gravity low with a wide base of support and maintaining correct body posture
What is friction?
It is a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement
What are some pathological influences on mobility?
Impaired Muscle Development
Damage to the Central Nervous System
Direct Trauma to the Musculoskeletal System
What is mobility?
Refers to a person's ability to move freely
What is immobility?
Refers to a person's inability to move freely
What is bed rest?
It is an intervention that restricts clients to bed for therapeutic reasons
What is a thrombus?
It is an accumulation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, which sometimes occludes the lumen of the vessel
What is a joint contracture?
It is an abnormal and possibly permanent condition characterized by fixation of the joint. Disuse, atrophy, and shortening of the muscle fibers cause joint contractures.
How does immobility complicate normal metabolic functioning?
Decreases metabolic rate
Alters metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Causes fluid, electrolyte, and calcium imbalances
Causes gastrointestinal disturbances
Decreased appetite and slowing of peristalsis
What types of respiratory changes come with immobility?
- Hypostatic pneumonia
- Both of theses decrease oxygenation and prolong recovery and add to client's discomfort
What is atelectasis?
It is the collapse of alveoli
What is hypostatic pneumonia?
It is inflammation of the lung from stasis or pooling of secretions
What are some cardiovascular changes from immobility?
Increased cardiac workload
What is footdrop?
It is when the foot is permanently fixed in plantar flexion
What is disuse osetoporosis?
Because immobilization results in bone resorption, the bone tissue is less dense or is atrophied
What is urinary stasis?
- Because the peristaltic contractions of the ureters are insufficient to over come gravity, the renal pelvis fills before urine enters the ureters.
- This increases the risk of a UTI and renal calculi
What are renal calculi?
They are calcium stones that lodge in the renal pelvis or pass through the ureters
What is a pressure ulcer?
It is an impairment of the skin as a result of prolonged ischemia (decreased blood supply) in tissues
What is ROM or range of motion?
It is the maximum amount of movement available at a joint in one of the three planes of the body: sagittal, frontal, or transverse
What is exercise?
It is physical activity for conditioning the body, improving health, and maintaining fitness
What is activity tolerance?
It is the type and amount of exercise or work that a person is able to perform
What is chest physiotherapy (CPT)?
It is an effective method for preventing pneumonia and keeping the airway clear by percussion and positioning
What is a trochanter roll?
It prevents external rotation of the hips when the client is in a supine position
What is a trapeze bar?
It is a triangular device that hangs down from a securely fastened overhead bar that is attached to the bed frame. It allows the client to pull with upper extremities to raise the trunk off the bed, to assist in transfer from bed to wheelchair, or to perform upper arm exercises.
What is the supported fowler's position?
- The head of the bed is elevated 45 to 60 degrees and the client's knees are slightly elevated without pressure to restrict circulation in the lower legs.
- Support and align hips and spine
What is the supine position?
- Clients rest on their backs
- Use of trochanter rolls, pillows, and hand rolls or arm splints increase comfort and reduce injury to the skin or musculoskeletal system
- Back-lying, support with pillows, trochanter rolls, splints
What is the prone position?
- The client lies face or chest down.
- Often the client's head is turned to the side, but if a pillow is under the head, it needs to be thin enough to prevent cervical flexion or extension and maintain alignment of the lumbar spine.
- "airway", face-down
What is the side-lying position?
- The client rests on the side with the major portion of body weight on the dependent hip and shoulder. A 30 degree lateral position is recommended for clients at risk for pressure ulcers
- side-lying (lateral) with spine alignment
What is the sims' position?
- Differs from the side-lying position in the distribution of the client's weight
- Client placed the weight on the anterior ileum, humerus, and clavicle
- Semi-prone on right or left side with weight on ileum, humerus, clavicle
- "Snuggle" position
What are IADLs?
Instrumental activities of daily living
They are necessary to be independent in society beyond eating, grooming, transferring, and toileting
They include skills like shopping, preparing meals, banking, and taking medications.
When assisting with ambulating, what needs to be done?
Use of gait belt
Support affected side of body
When using assistive devices to ambulate, what should be done?
Device should go on the unaffected side of the body and nurse or aide should be on the affected side of the body