Human Geography

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Human Geography
2011-05-03 21:39:34

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  1. Central Place
    A settlement in which certain products and services are available to consumers
  2. Central Place Theory
    A theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of people's shopping behavior
  3. Centrality
    The functional dominance of cities within an urban system
  4. Colonial City
    A city that was deliberately established or developed as an administrative or commercial center by colonial or imperial powers
  5. Counterurbanization
    The net loss of population from cities to smaller towns and rural areas
  6. Gateway City
    Serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation
  7. Informal Sector
    Economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems of regulation or remuneration
  8. Megacity
    Very large city characterized by both primacy and high centrality within its national economy
  9. Overurbanization
    Condition in which cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they can sustain
  10. Primacy
    Condition in which the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second and third largest cities
  11. Rank-Size Rule
    Statistical regularity in size distributions of cities and regions
  12. Reurbanization
    Growth of population in metropolitan central cores, following a period of absolute or relative decline in population
  13. Shock City
    City that is seen as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic, social, and cultural life
  14. Splintering Urbanism
    Fragmentation of the economic, social, and material fabric of cities as a result of the selective impact of new technologies and networked information and communications infrastructures
  15. Squatter Settlements
    Residential developments that occur on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
  16. Urban Ecology
    Social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods
  17. Urban Form
    Physical structure and organization of cities
  18. Urban System
    • Interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region
    • Cities play different roles in this
    • Different forms of political and economic organization favor different sites and roles for cities
  19. Urbanism
    Way of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settings
  20. World City
    City in which a disproportionate part of the world's most important business is conducted
  21. Beaux Arts
    A style of urban design that sought to combine the best elements of all of the classic architectural styles
  22. Central Business District
    The central nucleus of commercial land uses in a city
  23. Central Cities
    The original, core jurisdictions of metropolitan areas
  24. Congregation
    The territorial and residential clustering of specific groups or subgroups of people
  25. Cycle of Poverty
    The transmission of poverty and deprivation from one generation to another through a combination of domestic circumstances and local, neighborhood conditions
  26. Defensible Space
    A physical setting that allows residents to identify with, survey, and exert a degree of social control over public space
  27. Dualism
    The juxtaposition in geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy
  28. Edge Cities
    Nodal concentrations of shopping and office space situated on the outer fringes of metropolitan areas, typically near major highway intersections
  29. Fiscal Squeeze
    Increasing limitations on city revenues, combined with increasing demands for expenditure
  30. Gentrification
    Invasion of older, centrally-located, working-class neighborhoods by higher-income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and well-located residences
  31. Invasion and Succession
    Process of neighborhood change whereby one social or ethnic group succeeds another
  32. Isotropic Surface
    Hypothetical, uniform plain that is flat and has no variations in its physical attributes
  33. Minority Groups
    Population subgroups that are seen-or that see themselves- as somehow different from the general population
  34. Modern Movement
    Architectural movement based on the idea that buildings and cities should be designed and run like machines
  35. Redlining
    Practice whereby lending institutions delimit "bad-risk" neighborhoods on a city map and then use the map as the basis for determining loans
  36. Segregation
    Spatil seperation of specific population subgroups within a wider population
  37. Socio-Spatial Formation
    Specific combination of demographic groups, social classes, cultural values, and local institutions at a particular time and place
  38. Underclass
    Subset of the poor, isolated from mainstream values and the formal labor market
  39. Underemployment
    Situation in which people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
  40. Zone in Transition
    Area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
  41. Disruptive Technology
    A technology with the potential to cause a significant change in key aspects of national military power, economic development, or social organization
  42. Agrarian
    Referring to the culture of agricultural communities and the type of tenure system that determines access to land and the kind of cultivation practices employed there
  43. Agriculture
    A science, art, and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit
  44. Hunting and Gathering
    Activities whereby people feed themselves through killing wild animals and fish and gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants to sustain themselves
  45. Subsistence Agriculture
    • Farming for direct consumption by the producers; not for sale
    • 3 Practices
  46. Commercial Agriculture
    Farming primarily for sale, not direct consumption
  47. Shifting Cultivation
    System in which farmers aim to maintain soil fertility by rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs
  48. Crop Rotation
    Method of maintaining soil fertility in which the fields under cultivation remain the same but the crop being planted is changed
  49. Slash-and-Burn
    System of cultivation in which plants are cropped close to the ground, left to dry for a period and then ignited
  50. Swidden
    Land that is cleared using the slash-and-burn process and is ready for cultivation
  51. Interillage
    Practice of mixing different seeds and seedlings in the same swidden
  52. Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
    Practice that involves the effective and efficient use, usually through a considerable expenditure of human labor and application of fertilizer of a small parcel of land in order to maximize crop yield
  53. Pastoralism
    Subsistence activity that involves the breeding and herding of animals to satisfy the human needs of food, shelter, and clothing
  54. Double Cropping
    Practice used in the milder climates, where intensive subsistence fields are planted and harvested more than once a year
  55. Transhumance
    Movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms: warmer, lowland areas in the winter; cooler, highland areas in the summer
  56. Contract Farming
    Becoming an increasingly important aspect of the contemporary agro-food system, whether the products are purchased by multinationals, smaller companies, government agencies, farmer cooperatives, or individual entrepreneurs
  57. Mechanization
    Replacement of human farm labor with machines
  58. Chemical Farming
    Application of synthetic fertilizers to the soil and herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to crops in order to enhance yields
  59. Food Manufacturing
    Adding value to agricultural products through a range of treatments such as processing, canning, refining, packing, and packaging; that occur off the farm and before the products reach the market
  60. Agricultural Industrialization
    Process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing, and retailing
  61. Blue Revolution
    The introduction of new production techniques, processing technology, infrastructure, and larger, motorized boats, as well as the application of transgenics into peripheral country fisheries
  62. Aquaculture
    The cultivation of fish and shellfish under controlled conditions, usually in coastal lagoons
  63. Green Revolution
    Export of a technological package of fertilizers and high-yielding seeds, from the core to the periphery, to increase global agricultural productivity
  64. Nontraditional Agricultural Exports
    New export crops that contrast with traditional exports
  65. Biorevolution
    The genetic engineering of plants and animals with the potential to exceed the productivity of the Green Revolution
  66. Biotechnology
    Technique that uses living organisms or parts of organisms to make or modify products, to improve plants and animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
  67. Biopharming
    An application of biotechnology in which genes from other life forms (plants, animal, fungal, bacterial, or human) are inserted into a host plant
  68. Borlaug Hypothesis
    Because global food demand is on the rise, restricting crop usage to traditional low-yield methods (such as organic farming) would require either the world population to decrease or the further conversion of forest land into cropland
  69. Globalized Agriculture
    System of food production increasingly dependent upon an economy and set of regulatory practices that are global in scope and organization
  70. Agribusiness
    A set of economic and political relationships that organizes agro-food production from the development of seeds to the retailing and consumption of the agricultural product
  71. Food Chain
    Five central and connected sectors (inputs, production, product processing, distribution, and consumption) with four contextual elements acting as external mediating forces (the state, international trade, the physical environment, and credit and finance)
  72. Food Regime
    Specific set of links that exists among food production and consumption and capital investment and accumulation opportunities
  73. Organic Farming
    Farming or animal husbandry done without commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, or growth hormones
  74. Conventional Farming
    Approach that uses chemicals in the form of plant protectants and fertilizers, or intensive, hormone-based practices in breeding and raising animals
  75. Local Food
    Food that is organically grown and produced within a fairly limited distance from where it is consumed
  76. Slow Food
    Attempt to resist fast food by preserving the cultural cuisine and the associated food and farming of an ecoregion
  77. Fast Food
    Edibles that can be prepared and served very quickly, sold in a restaurant and served to customers in packaged form
  78. Undernutrition
    Inadequate intake of one or more nutrients and/or calories
  79. Famine
    Acute starvation associated with a sharp increase in mortality
  80. Food Security
    Assured access by a person, household, or even a country to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives
  81. Food Sovereignty
    Right of peoples, communities, and countries to define their own agricultural, labor, fishing, food, and land policies that are ecologically, socially, economically, and culturally appropriate to their unique circumstances
  82. Biofuels
    Renewable fuels derived from biological materials that can be regenerated
  83. Genetically Modified Organisms
    Any organism that has had its DNA modified in a laboratory than through cross-pollination or other forms of evolution
  84. Urban Agriculture
    Establishment or performance of agricultural practices in or near an urban or citylike setting
  85. Geopolitics
    State’s power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political relations.
  86. Bioterrorism
    Deliberate use of microorganisms or toxins from living organisms to induce death or disease
  87. Centrifugal Forces
    Forces that divide or tend to pull the state apart
  88. Centripetal Forces
    Forces that strengthen and unify the state
  89. Children's Rights
    The fundamental right of children to life, liberty, education, and health care codified by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989
  90. Citizenship
    A category of belonging to a nation-state that includes civil, political, and social rights
  91. Confederation
    A group of states united for a common purpose
  92. Decolonization
    The acquisition, by colonized peoples, of control over their own territory
  93. Discourse
    Institutionalized ways of constituting knowledge
  94. Democratic Rule
    A system in which public policies and officials are directly chosen by popular vote
  95. Domino Theory
    The theory that if one country in a region chooses or is forced to accept a communist political and economic system, then neighboring countries would be irresistibly susceptible to communism
  96. East/West Divide
    Communist and noncommunist countries, respectively
  97. Federal State
    Form of government in which power is allocated to units of local government within the country
  98. Gerrymandering
    Practice of redistricting for partisan purposes
  99. Global Civil Society
    Set of institutions, organizations, and behaviors situated between the state, business world, and family including voluntary and non-profit organizations, philanthropic institutions, and social and political movements
  100. Human Rights
    People’s individual rights to justice, freedom, and equality, considered by most societies to belong automatically to all people
  101. International Organization
    Group that includes two or more states seeking political and/or economic cooperation with each other
  102. International Regime
    Orientation of contemporary politics around the international arena instead of the national
  103. Intifada
    Uprising against Israel by the Palestinian people
  104. Nation
    • Group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language or a history or political identity
    • Zulus, Cherokee Indians, Palestinians, Navajos
    • Tribes, not all nations are tribes though
  105. Nation-State
    • Ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people governed by their own state
    • Israel is trying to become one, Vatican City, Japan, Korea, Denmark, Iceland
  106. Nationalism
    Feeling of belonging to a nation as well as the belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
  107. New World Order
    Triumph of capitalism over communism, wherein the United States becomes the world’s only superpower and therefore its policing force
  108. North/South Divide
    Differentiation made between the colonizing states of the Northern Hemisphere and the formerly colonized states of the Southern Hemisphere
  109. Orientalism
    Discourse that positions the West as culturally superior to the East
  110. Reapportionment
    Process of allocation electoral seats to geographical areas
  111. Redistricting
    Defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries
  112. Regionalism
    Feeling of collective identity based on a population’s politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries
  113. Sectionalism
    Extreme devotion to local interests and customs
  114. Self-Determination
    Right of a group with a distinctive politico-territorial identity to determine its own destiny, at least in part, through the control of its own territory
  115. Sovereignty
    • Exercise of state power over people and territory, recognized by other states and codified by international law
    • Exercise self-determination to achieve this
  116. Supranational Organization
    Collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic and/or political in nature
  117. Territorial Organization
    System of government formally structured by area, not by social groups
  118. Territory
    Delimited area over which a state exercises control and which is recognized by other states
  119. Terrorism
    Threat or use of force to bring about political change
  120. Unitary State
    Form of government in which power is concentrated in the central government
  121. Zionism
    Movement for the establishment of a legally recognized home in Palestine for the Jewish people
  122. 1st Agricultural Revolution
    • Between 9000 and 7000 B.C.
    • Early Stone Age domestication of seeds and animals enabled settlement
    • Spurred many social changes
  123. Hearth Areas
    Fertile Crescent, Ganges, Yuan, Mesoamerica
  124. Changes from 1st Agricultural Revolution
    • Higher population densities in settlements
    • More hierarchical social organization
    • Specialization in nonagricultural crafts
    • Spurred barter and trade
    • Hydraulic societies
  125. 3 Practices of Subsistent Agriculture
    • Shifting cultivation
    • Intensive agriculture
    • Pastoralism
  126. Traditional Food Systems
    • Local, small-scale production
    • Labor requires high proportion of population
    • Distribution and consumption through social as well as market relationships
    • Limited choices for consumers - seasonal and local availability
    • Lack of sharp differences in beliefs about food practices
  127. 2nd Agricultural Revolution
    • Commodified surplus production on larger scale Industrial Revolution
    • Labor-saving innovations - yokes, horses, plows
    • New inputs – fertilizers, drainage systems
    • Dramatic improvements in outputs
  128. Changes from 2nd Agricultural Revolution
    • Value of production determined by market price, not nutritional value
    • Value of agricultural labor measured by profit
    • Geographical specialization of agriculture according to profitability
  129. International Agricultural Specialization
    Enabled by developments in transportation and preservation
  130. 3rd Agricultural Revolution
    • Emanating from “New World” in 20th c.
    • Differs from 2nd Ag. Rev. in degree
    • Mechanization: Replacement of human and animal labor with machines
    • Chemical farming: Application of inorganic fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides and pesticides to enhance crop yields
    • Food manufacturing: Adding value with processing and packaging off-farm and before market
  131. Vertical Integration
    • One firm owns all stages of production
    • Want to be able to "control their destiny"
  132. Horizontal Integration
    • Increased market share in given niche
    • Go to company for something
  133. Diversification
    One company becomes involved in many different products
  134. Economies of Scale
    Cost advantages from high-volume production
  135. Agribusiness
    Created a world where food shapes industrialization
  136. Capital Intensive
    Takes a ton of money to produce food
  137. Green Revolution
    • Package of Inputs: miracle seeds, fertilizers and pesticides and water
    • Crops can yield 2-5x traditional crops
    • Not an unqualified success
    • Agricultural science and biotechnology
    • Alleviate hunger in periphery
    • Increasing crop yields
  138. Successes of Green Revolution
    • Used as package= 2X - 5X higher yields of crop
    • World grain output increased 90% in 1960s 70% in 1970s 80% in 1980s 80% in 1990s
    • Yields in some countries high enough to foster foreign trade
  139. Green Revolution Unanticipated Results
    • High- yield seeds limits to nitrogen absorption
    • Nitrogen-based fertilizers in water
    • Required building major irrigation infrastructure increased nitrogen and water led to tall stalks that could not support heavy seed heads of high yield plant
    • Dwarf varieties of high yield seeds
    • -Moist conditions led to growth of pests and disease Pesticides
  140. Philippines
    • Miracle rice developed at International Rice Research Institute
    • In the 70s they were the main net exporter
    • In the 80s Annual growth in rice production slowed from 4.6% to 0.9%
  141. Reasons for Slow in Growth in Philippines in 1980s
    • Tropical storms
    • Droughts
    • Economic downturn and crisis
    • Crop loans less available
    • Cost of inputs increased
    • Rice prices declined
    • Farmers squeezed
    • Hectarage decreased
    • Importation required
  142. Economic Concerns of Green Revolution
    • Industrialization of food production in periphery, but lacked industrial infrastructure
    • Reinforced dependency on imported goods and technology
    • Did not produce backwards linkages on capital goods producing sector in periphery they way it did in the core
  143. Social Concerns with Green Revolution
    • Little progress in Africa, where hunger is very severe
    • Costs of inputs leads to growing more crops for export, fewer for consumption – local nutritional needs still not met
    • Intended as social equalizer, effects have been to further stratify societies –wealth, debt, landlessness, increase in urban poor
  144. Environmental Concerns with Green Revolution
    • Genetically engineered varieties often lack resistance to local pests
    • Invented varieties often less nutritious
    • Fertilizers derived from fossil fuels – system vulnerable to fluctuations in world oil market
    • Environmental degradation from chemical inputs and intensive mono-culture
  145. Systems of cities & Spatial form and socio-spatial function of (individual) cities
    Urban Geographers Study
  146. Chicago School- Ecological Model
    • Influenced by European concerns with effects of city on social life
    • Searched for positive impact on life in cities
    • -Gemeinschaft vs Gesellschaft
    • -Progressive Era commitment to reform
    • Used empirical (ethnographic) research
    • Urban ecology – people behave like plants
    • -Competition among groups over resources (plants:sunlight)
    • -Invasion and succession
  147. Vacancy Chains
    • When homeowners move, home becomes vacant
    • New occupants generally younger w/ fewer resources
  148. Filtering
    • City: Impact of each new UMC house at outskirts filters through chain
    • Hhlds: Hhlds filter up through housing market (usually up and out)
    • Housing: 1930s low-income immigrants occupying once-fashionable houses
  149. Life Cycle and Neighborhood Change
    • Initial Urbanization
    • Transition
    • Downgrading
    • Thinning
    • Renewal
  150. Initial Urbanization
    Typically occurs on the fringe of the city
  151. Transition
    Population growth continues, density increases, and multi-family housing begins to being built
  152. Downgrading
    Older housing stock is converted to multifamily use, densities continue to increase, and the housing stock physically deteriorates
  153. Thinning
    Population decines, household size shrinks, housing units become vacant and are abandoned
  154. Renewal
    • Obsolete housing is replaced with multifamily buildings, and the intensity and efficiency of land use increase
    • Thought to often require public-sector involvement
  155. Population of Minneapolis
    • 1870 (13,066)
    • 1884 (106,739)
    • Scandinavian
    • Irish
    • German
    • RRs
    • Mills
    • Manufactories
  156. Why are there cities?
    • Economic development
    • Cultural innovation
    • Social transformation
    • Political power
  157. Medieval Europe
    • Rural system of feudal kingdoms & estates
    • Towns:
    • Ecclesiastical / University
    • Administrative Defensive
  158. Mercantile Capitalism
    • Money economy
    • Long-distance trade in luxury goods
    • Spices, furs, silks, fruit, wine
    • Favored locations: Ports Trade Routes Transshipment Nodes
  159. Mercantile Capitalism in Europe
    • Trading partners Hanseatic League
    • Trading networks Venice, Pisa, Genoa, Florence 1400
    • Long-distance trade in bulk staples
    • Grains, wine, salt, wool, cloth
    • Paris pop. 275,000
  160. Colonial Expansion in Europe
    • Port cities of North Sea & Atlantic Coast
    • London, Lisbon, Amsterdam
  161. Colonial Expansion in Latin America
    • Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paolo Buenos Aires
    • Gateways to interior markets for European manufactures
  162. Industrial Capitalism
    • Urban system and cities differentiated by new functions
    • Pre-existing trade cities: London, Amsterdam
    • New ports: Liverpool
    • New production centers- new form of city
    • Manchester and surrounding towns
    • Near coal fields
    • New production system evolved linking city to rural nodes – putting out -> FACTORIES ->
    • cotton cloth
  163. Industrial Revolution in Europe
    • Processes of Industrialization and Urbanization
    • Increase in agricultural productivity
    • Demographic changes – rapid urbanization
    • New modes of production
    • New power technology
    • New modes of transportation
    • Implications for Urban System
    • Implications for Internal Spatial Form
  164. Causes of Increase in Agricultural Productivity
    • Seed selection & animal breeding
    • Fertilizers
    • Enclosure Acts
  165. Effects of Increase in Agricultural Productivity
    • Increase in population supported by ag
    • % Rural population becomes redundant
    • Many settle in cities where new forms of work are available
  166. Demographic Changes
    Rapid urbanization provides labor supply for emerging factories
  167. Production Changes
    • Specialization in labor process
    • Technological advances made it economical to produce in larger, single site factories produce standardized high volume goods
    • Textiles – flying shuttle 2X hand output (1733) spinning Jenny 8X hand output (1764) spinning mule 120X hand output (1779) weaving machines
  168. Power Technology- Steam Engine
    • 1712 steam engine first applied to machinery
    • Steam-powered weaving machines revolutionized production process
    • Coal as fuel source increased efficiency
    • England had lots of coal
    • Heavy and bulky
    • Expensive to transport
  169. Transportation Changes
    • Canals & roads
    • Faster ships – cutters
    • Railroads
    • Steamships
  170. Internal Spatial Form
    • Factories
    • Railroads
    • Housing
  171. Factories and Internal Spatial Form
    • At center of new cities
    • Tall- compact in form
    • Dirty
  172. Railroads and Internal Spatial Form
    • Through center of city to service factories
    • Sometimes elevated
  173. Housing and Internal Spatial Form
    • Culmination of separation of home and workplace
    • Cheap – poor quality construction
    • Crowded beyond belief
    • Near factories
    • Dark
    • Dirty
  174. Manchester, England
    • Pre-existing town – - chester means
    • Fort Mancurian
    • Medieval church town
    • Limited (artisanal) production and trade in wool, flax, linen
    • With expansion of British Empire, vast amounts of (new) raw materials
    • Cotton sourced from India, Egypt, America, China, Japan
  175. Technological Changes in Manchester, England
    • Production technology
    • Power sources
  176. Industrial Revolution Feud Between Rich and Poor
    • Brutal working and living conditions
    • No water, no services, no privacy
    • 12 shared one bed
    • 100 houses shared one privy (hole) or midden (pile) No clean drinking water
    • Houses were always damp & could fill with sewage Life expectancy for males in these conditions 17 yrs 2/3 of workers in mills were children ages 6-10
    • Wages below subsistence
  177. Responses to Dire Conditions in Industrial Revolution
    • Social Reform movements
    • Legislation
    • Housing
    • Work
    • Health
  178. 1648 Treaty of Westphalia
    • Ended 30 Year war b/t Protestants and Catholics Reduced power of Holy Roman Empire Strengthened emerging States
    • Made the territorial state rather than monarch the basis of political system Consolidated many small states
  179. Enlightenment Cartography with Creation of National States
    • Maps are key tool in state-making
    • Biggs (1999:374)
    • “In its spatial form, the modern state is qualitatively different from the medieval realm, a difference that owes something to the techniques of knowing and representing space originating in the Renaissance”
  180. Maps
    • Created new forms of knowledge
    • Represented new forms of political space – clearly bounded and internally homogeneous
    • Symbolized political authority as territory (rather than as ruler)
  181. Acquiring Spatial Knowledge
    • 17th – 18th c. Institutionalization of surveying and mapmaking
    • Ordnance Survey of England
    • Origins in 1747 mapping of Scottish Highlands in aftermath of Jacobite uprising. Used to facilitate future military maneuvers against clans
  182. Ordnance Survey Arolwg Ordnans
    Series of large scale maps
  183. Reshaping Spatial Form
    Biggs (1999:385) “Maneuvering armies, assessing taxes, and planning roads could be undertaken more effectively with detailed and accurate maps... As lands were surveyed and mapped, they were reshaped into a territory: a homogeneous and uniform space, demarcated by linear boundaries”
  184. Op Cit (386)
    “As rulers began mapping their lands, they did much more than multiply the quantity of geographic knowledge. The map represents an area as a demarcated space located in relation to an imaginary grid, without reference to tradition or relationships”
  185. Op Cit (391)
    The cartographic image of the state did not imply that it was coterminous with a nation. While every nationalism has its hearthland, the map is less suited to conveying the relationship between people and soil. The map rationally represents quantities of distance, not the quality of myth; compare the emotionally freighted symbol of the nation, the flag”
  186. Wales
    • Mountainous
    • Linguistic refuge area
    • Britons retreated from Angles and Saxons
    • Welsh is an older language than
    • English
    • Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru
    • National Library of Wales
  187. Wales
    • Part of multi-national state of Great Britain
    • 2+ ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that co- exist by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities
    • GB: England, Wales, Scotland
    • UK: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland
  188. Wales
    • Conquered by England 1282, politically united 1536
    • A local government unit within GB, UK
    • Little independent political power
    • Antipathy between English and Welsh (uneven)
  189. Political Geography
    • Relationships between groups of people and pieces of territory
    • Politics and cultural practices which strengthen or weaken such relationships
    • States and the relationships between them: Geopolitics
  190. State
    • Independent political unit with boundaries internationally recognized by other states
    • Can’t become one unless internationals consider you one
    • A set of institutions that make rules that govern life within its territory
    • United States and Israel
  191. Feudal States
    • Boundaries uncertain and subject to change political control exercised by few people clear social hierarchy
    • Does not equal a modern state
  192. Absolutist States
    Concentrated power in a monarchy
  193. Modern States
    • Independent political unit with internationally recognized boundaries
    • Individual identification with state is with territory and institutions rather than leader per se
    • Political Form
  194. 1882
    British forces occupied Egypt, at the time an autonomous vassal state of the Ottoman Empire (the Sick Man of Europe), ostensibly to help Ottomans put down an uprising
  195. 1914
    Ottomans sided with Germany (Central Powers) in WW I Great Britain annexed Egypt, Sudan and Cyprus in response
  196. African nations are more than African states
    The fact that a political unit (state) exists does not meant that its boundaries delimit a nation identity
  197. Pan-Arabism
    • Originated turn of 20th c. with Jurji Zaydan and Nahda (Revival) movement
    • Pressed as a political agenda by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sharif of Mecca
  198. Jurji Zaydan and Nahda (Revival) Movement
    Influenced acceptance of a modern Arabic (Quranic language) as the lingua franca of the Arab world, superceding local dialects
  199. Pressed as a political agenda by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, the Sharif of Mecca
    Sought independence from the Ottoman Empire for the Mashreq Arabs, and the establishment of a unified Arab state in the Mashreq
  200. 1915-16 Hussein-McMahon Correspondence
    Led to agreement between the UK and the Sharif that if the Mashreq Arabs revolted successfully against the Ottomans
  201. 1916-18 Arab Revolt
    Sharif help up his end of the bargain, and organized the Arab Revolt against the Ottomans
  202. 1916-Sykes-Picot Agreement
    Between the UK and France determined that parts of the Mashreq would be divided between those powers rather than forming part of an independent Arab state
  203. 1918- Defeat of Ottoman Empire
    • UK and France took over Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Transjordan as protectorates, failing to respect agreement with Sharif of Mecca
    • Sharif became King of Hijaz which was later absorbed
  204. 1916- Dividing the Spoils of the War
    • The Sykes-Picot Agreement also designated Palestine an international zone
    • Homeland for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
  205. 1917 Balfour Declaration
    Leveraged Jewish pressure for US to enter the war, by supporting a Jewish homeland in Palestine
  206. Balfour Declaration
    • Surprised and angered Britain’s Arabs allies “critical misunderstanding” – Palestine an Arab state
    • British appear to have been making more promises than they could reasonably keep
  207. 1880s
    Anti-Semitism in Europe spurs birth of Zionism
  208. 1896
    Theodore Hertzl “Der Judenstaat”
  209. 1897
    • World Zionist Congress calls for a Jewish “national home” in Palestine, to be supported politically and financially by a worldwide organization.
    • Zionists settle dozens of colonies over next decade
  210. 1918
    • Population in Palestine numbered:
    • 500,000 Muslim Arabs
    • 100,000 Christian Arabs
    • 60,000 Jews
  211. 1945 League of Arab States
    Regional organization made up of geographically adjacent countries where the people speak the same language, share the same culture, and where the majority are Muslims. (Currently 22 members)
  212. Egypt
    Saudi Arabia
    6 Founding Members of League of Arab States
  213. North African States that Gained Independence
    • Egypt 1922
    • Mahgreb Libya 1951
    • Tunisa 1956
    • Morocco 1956
    • Mauritania 1960
    • Algeria 1962
  214. Algeria
    • After 8 years of war
    • French evacuate
    • Strong Islamic orientation to politics
  215. European Union
    • Treaty-based supranational framework
    • Started as economic union moving toward political union
    • Process of integration begun in 1950s
  216. France
    Now 27 Member States
    6 Apart of European Union
  217. ECSC European Coal and Steel Community (1951)
    Pool production under common authority to “control forces of war”
  218. EEC European Economic Community (1957)
    Merge national markets (over time) into a single market that would ensure the free movement of goods, people, capital and services
  219. EAEC European Atomic Energy Community
    Further the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes
  220. 3 Treaties of 1950s for European Union
    • ECSC
    • EEC
    • EAEC
  221. European Union 3 Pillars
    • European community
    • Common foreign and security policy
    • Justice and home affairs
  222. European Community
    • Treaty of Rome as revised by Single European Act
    • Single market
    • Democratization of the institutions
    • European citizenship
    • Economic and monetary union:
    • Single currency
    • European Central Bank
    • Single monetary policy
    • Coordination of economic policies
  223. Common Foreign and Security Policy
    • Systematic cooperation
    • Common positions and joint action
    • Eventual common defense policy based on the Western European Union
  224. Justice and Home Affairs
    • Closer Cooperation
    • Asylum policy
    • Rules on crossing the Member States' external borders
    • Immigration policy
    • Combating drug addiction
    • Combating international fraud
    • Customs, police, and judicial cooperation
  225. EU Common Policies
    • Foreign trade
    • Agriculture
    • Competition
    • Transport
    • Environment
    • Development
  226. EU by 1999
    • Largest trade partner in the world (20% of all exports)
    • Largest single market
  227. Common Policies Funded by..
    • Value Added Tax (VAT)
    • GNP-based contributions by member states + customs duties on industrial products levies on agricultural imports
    • Structural Fund Wealth redistribution between countries
  228. Different Models of Economic Growth EU
    • Ultra Liberal
    • European Model
  229. Ultra Liberal
    • EU as a free-trade area
    • Restrict role of European institutions to policing the Single Market
  230. European Model
    • Moderate pursuit of economic growth with concerns for social welfare and equity, sustainability and good governance
    • Strengthen European institutions to fulfill functions otherwise reserved to those of nation states
  231. Ambivalence within EU as to whether and how to develop formal Urban Policy
    • Formal EU policy rejected as unwanted intrusion in sovereign affairs
    • Some cities lobby for more direct contact with Brussels
  232. Recognition that
    • EU policies have implications for cities
    • EU policies contain an implicit urban agenda
    • Cities are engines of economic growth and urban policy can be key to success of EU policies
  233. Forces Shaping Urban Europe
    • Globalization
    • Formation of continental trading blocs
    • Transformation of Eastern Europe
    • Shift to informational economy
    • Transportation technologies
    • Information technologies
    • Urban boosterism
    • Demographic and social change
    • European enlargement
  234. Future Geographies
    Contours can be discerned in present conditions and history from which they derived Grounded geographical analysis lands somewhere between optimistic and pessimistic scenarios
  235. Period of Transition
    • Triggered by fall of Iron Curtain 1989
    • Rendered more complex by geopolitical and cultural repercussions of 9/11 attacks
    • And by Financial meltdown of 2008 ff.
    • Unexpected developments and unsettling juxtapositions
  236. Shifting Balance with USA
    • World’s sole superpower Declining hegemon
    • Economic dominance no longer unquestioned
  237. Shifting Balance with EU
    • Largest internal market and largest exporting power
    • Challenge US hegemony or become partner among superpowers?
  238. Shifting Balance with China and India
    • Greatest benefits of globalization will accrue to economies that can best adapt new technologies
    • Rise to economic power could transform geopolitics
  239. Key Sectors to Watch
    • Effects of contestation and innovation in these sectors will be felt at global, national, regional and urban scales
    • Globalization Cultural dissonance Security
    • Sustainability
    • Climate change
    • Peak Oil
    • Water
  240. Disruptive Technologies
    • Energy storage
    • Biofuels and bio-based chemicals
    • Clean coal
    • Biogerontology
    • Service robotics
    • An Internet of Things