comp pt

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comp pt
2011-04-26 21:51:38
little ch20

week 15 immunologic diseases
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  1. what are the antibiotic allergic reactions important to dental personnel? 10
    • penicillin
    • sulfonamides
    • vancomyicn
    • amphotericing b
    • cephalosporins
    • nitrofuratoin
    • ciprofloxacin
    • tetracyclines
    • streptomycin
    • chloramphenicol
  2. azo and non azo dyes used in _____, parabens-preservatives used in ____ and sulfites used in ____ are causes fo rallergic reactions important to the dental personnel
    • toothpaste
    • LA
    • LA
  3. what are the five functions of the immune system?
    • processing of antigens
    • cellular recognition of antigens
    • cellular repsonse to presentation of antigen
    • celluar action against antigen
    • eradication of antigen
  4. what is a foreign substance that triggers hypersensitivity reactions; cause an immunologic reaction resulting in allergic diseases
  5. what are the 5 types of immunoglobulins?
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgE
    • IgD
  6. what immunoglobulin is the most abundant, diffuses into tissues, can cross the placenta, facilitates pagocytosis by neutrophils, binds to mast cells and has four subclass..1,2,3,4
  7. what immunoglobulin is found in saliva, tears, nasal mucous and protects from proteolysis and serum, does not cross placenta and is the last immunoglobulin to appear in childhood?
  8. what immunoglobulin is a large molecule, confined to intravascular sapce, is the first immunoglobulind produced and is a good agglutinating antibody
  9. what immunotglobulin is very low in concentration, increased in parastic and atopic disease, binds to mast cells and basophils and is KETY ANTIBODY IN PATHOGENESIS of TYPE I hyerpsensitivity reactions
  10. what immunoglobulin is low in concentration and little importance?
  11. what type of hypersensitivity is realted to humoral system, mediated by IgE, immediate response.
    type I
  12. what type of hypersensitivity usual allergens are dust, mites, pollens, animal dander, foods and drugs
    type I
  13. what hypersensitivity is it when symptoms on occasion include anaphylaxis, hay fever, asthma, urticaria and angioedema
    type I
  14. hwat % or the popluation is affected by type I hypersensitivity?
  15. what hypersensitivity is mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies and is a Cytotoxic hypersensitivity and the antibodies combine with host cells to recognized as a foreign antigen which binds to host cell membranes during induced hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia
    type II
  16. what are some examples of type II hypersensitivity?
    transfusion reactions from mismatched blood, rhesus incompatibility, good pasture's syndrome
  17. what type of hypersensitivity involves cellular immune system, mediated by T lymphocytes but doesn't involve antibodies
    type IV
  18. what type of hypersensitivity is the delayed type?
    type IV
  19. what are some examples of type IV hypersensitivity?
    contact dermatitis, graft and transplant rejection, graft vs host reaction, drug hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, tuberculin skin test, poison ivy
  20. urticaria, swelling, skin rash, chest tightness, dyspnea, shortness of breath, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis are all signs and symptoms of what?
    allergic reaction
  21. _____ allergy examples are syncope after LA injection, nausea or vomiting after ingestion of codeine
  22. talkativenss, slurred speech, dizzienss, nausea, depression, euphoria, excitement, convulsions are all signs and symptoms of what?
    toxic reaction to LA
  23. toxic reactions to LA usually result from what?
    inadvertent intravenous injection of LA solution..ASPIRATE BABY!
  24. tachycardia, apprehension sweating and hyperactivity are all signs and symptoms of what?
    vasoconstrictor reaction
  25. hyperventilation, vasovagal syncope (bardycardia, pallor, sweating) sympathetic stimulation (anxiety, tremor, tachycardia, hypertension) are all signs of what?
    psychomotor response to LA injection
  26. what is the LA associated with the highest incidence of allergic reaction?
  27. when should a pt be referred to an allergist?
    pt has had allergic reaction to LA but not sure what ingredient triggered allergy
  28. what test is done by the allergist?
    provocative dose testing (PDT)
  29. what ROA is contraindicated for penicillins?
  30. what is the preferred ROA for penicillins?
    oral route
  31. what ROA of penicillins can cuase more serious reactions?
  32. what should pts allergic to penicillin be given for oral infections?
  33. what should be given to pts allergic to penicillins for prophylaxist against infective endocarditis?
  34. what are drugs to avoid for pneicillin allergy? 4
    • ampicilliln
    • carbenicillin
    • methicillin
    • occasionally cephalosporins
  35. what shoudl not be used for pt with ulcers, gastritis, hemorrhagic disease (prolong prothrombin time/platelet function) or hiatal hernia?
  36. what can provoke severe reactions in asthmatics?
    • aspirin
    • NSAIDS
  37. rubber gloves, rubber dam, blood pressure cuff and catheters often cause what type of reaction?
    type IV
  38. handsoaps used by healthcare workers cause what type of reaction?
    type IV
  39. dnetal amalgam, acrylic, composite resin, nickel, eugenol, rubber products, talcum powder, mouthwases and toothpastes can all cause what type of reaction?
    type IV (contact stomatitis)
  40. uticarial swellings or angioneurotic edema are oral manifesations for what type of reaction?
    type I
  41. what is given for a type I reaction?
  42. white erythematous or ulcerative lesions are oral manifestations what type of reaction?
    hype III
  43. contact stomatitis is an oral manifestation of what type of reaction?
    type IV
  44. a pt is in the chair and angioneutoric edema is noticed in the tongue, pharyngeal tissues or larynx what type of reaction is the pt having and what should be done?
    • type I
    • place in supine
    • clear airway
    • give oxygen
    • call EMS
    • give epi
    • CPR
  45. _____ occurs within minutes effecting both the respiratory and circulatory sytem together and is fatal if not taken care of immediately
  46. itching of soft palate, nausea, vomiting, substernal pressure, shortness of breath, hyptension, pruritus, urticaria, laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, cardiac arrhythmias are all signs and symptoms of what?
  47. what is the first thing to be done with an anaphylaxis pt?
    call ems
  48. what position should an anaphylaxis pt be in
  49. what can be given to a pt with anaphylaxis