MA 203 A & P

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Author:
Shutrbug20
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82096
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MA 203 A & P
Updated:
2011-05-01 22:13:58
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Bones
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Chapter 11 Unit 5
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  1. Bone Structure
    • 20% water
    • 2/3 of remainder made up of minerals
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorus
    • Last 1/3 made of collagen
  2. Spongy Bone
    Filled with red marrow
  3. Bone Shaft
    Filled with yellow marrow
  4. Diaphysis
    Shaft of long bone
  5. Number of Bones
    • At birth = 270
    • Adult = 206
    • 64 bones fused together
  6. Function of Bones
    • Support body
    • Protect vital organs
    • Point of attachment for muscles
    • Give shape to body
    • Form blood cells
    • Stores calcium
    • Sound Conduction (sinuses are resonance chambers), Ossicles for ear
  7. Describe Spinal Column
    • Stack of vertebrae that supports head
    • Keeps trunk erect
    • Provides protection for spinal cord
  8. Spinal Column
    Vertebral Column
    • Cervical Vertebrae 1-7
    • Thoracic Vertebrae 1-12
    • Lumbar Vertebrae 1-5
    • Sacrum 1
    • Coccyx 1
    • Total = 26
  9. Cervical Vertebrae
    • Bones of the neck
    • C1-C7
    • C-1 = Atlas carries weight of head
    • C-2 = Axis allows twist
  10. Thoracic Vertebrae
    • All 12 touch a rib
    • Chest
  11. Lumbar Vertebrae
    • Bones of lower back
    • Waist
    • L4-L5 CSF most abbundant
  12. Sacrum
    Fused as 1 bone
  13. Coccyx
    • Fused as 1 bone
    • Tail bone
    • End of Sacrum
  14. Skull (2 Sections)
    • Cranium (holds the Brain)
    • Facial Bone
  15. Cranium
    • 4 Major bones (flat)
    • Frontal Bone (1) Anterior
    • Parietal Bones (2) Superior
    • Occipital Bone (1) Posterior
    • Temporal Bones (2) Lateral
  16. Facial Bones
    • Maxilla (1) Upper Jaw
    • Mandible (1) Lower Jaw - only moveable bone in face
    • Zygomatic (2) Cheek bone
    • Nasal Bone (2)
    • Lacrimal Bones (2)
    • Vomer (1)
    • Palatine (2)
  17. Rib Cage
    • 12 Pairs Ribs
    • 24 Total Ribs
  18. True Ribs
    1st 7 Pairs of ribs
  19. False Ribs
    • Last 5 Pairs of ribs
    • Includes last 2 Pairs wich are floating ribs
  20. Sternum (breast bone)
    3 Sections
    • Top = Manubrium
    • Middle = Body of Sternum
    • Bottom = Xiphoid Process
  21. Where Ribs Meet Sternum
    • Clavicularsternal Notch
    • Superior to Manubrium
  22. Costal
    Ribs
  23. Shoulder Bones
    Shoulder Girdle
    • Scapula (shoulder blade) posterior to ribs
    • Clavicle (collar bone)
  24. Arm Bones
    • Humerus (upper arm)
    • Ulna & Radius (forearm)
  25. Hand Bones
    • Carpals (wrist bones) 8 per wrist
    • Metacarpals (hand bones) 5 each hand
    • Written as Roman Numerals
    • Phalanges (fingers) 56 total
  26. Leg Bones
    • Femur - thigh bone (longest in body)
    • Patella - kneecap (sesamoid bone)
    • Tibia - shin bone (weight bearing)
    • Fibula - (ballance bone)
    • Tibia & Fibula make up "Leg Bone"
  27. Feet Bones
    • Tarsals (ankle bones) 7 each foot
    • Metatarsals (foot bones) 5 each foot
    • Phalanges (toes) 56 total
  28. Hip Bones
    • Ilium (iliac crest is top)
    • Ischium (sits bones)
    • Pubis (lower front)
    • (symphysis pubis) joins 2 halves of pelvis together
    • Acetabulum (hip socket)
  29. Foramen Magnum
    • Large hole / canal for spinal column
    • From skull to sacrum
  30. Iliac Crest & Sacrum
    Form
    • Sacroiliac Joint
    • SI Joint
  31. Articulation
    • Where two bones join together
    • Commonly known as a Joint
    • Held together by Ligaments
  32. Types of Joints (3)
    • Diathrosis - both ends fully moveable (elbow)
    • Amphiarthrosis - small movement (vertebrae)
    • Synarthrosis - no movement (cranium)
  33. Diarthrosis
    3 Types
    • Ball and Socket Joint (shoulders and hips)
    • Hinge Joint (elbows and knees)
    • Pivot Joint (wrist and ankles)
  34. Fractures
    • Greenstick - not complete break (children)
    • Simple - complete break but no skin
    • Compound / Open - bone through skin
    • Spiral - twisting force (abuse)
    • Impacted - broken ends jammed into each other
    • Comminuted - more than 1 fracture line and fragments
    • Depressed - piece of skull pushed inward
  35. Fracture
    Bone Healing
    • Fibrous bridge around break
    • Called a callus
    • Then cartilage is formed
    • Cartilage will turn to bone
    • Excess cartilage reabsorbed into body
  36. Fossa
    • Depression on a bone
    • Something fits inside
    • AKA = Notch
  37. Sinus
    • Hollow cavity
    • Space in bone
  38. Foramen
    • Round opening
    • Blood vessels / nerves pass through
  39. Meatus
    • Canal
    • Tube like passage
  40. Condyle
    • Knuckle-like round projection at end of bone
    • Usually articulates with other bone
  41. Epicondyle
    • Projections over condyles
    • Usually for muscle attachment
  42. Head
    • Rounded ends of bone
    • Fits in fossa
  43. Tubercle
    • Small bump projection
    • For muscle attachment
  44. Trochanter
    • Large tubercle
    • Found only on femur
    • Greater and lesser Trochanter
  45. Tuberosity
    • Rough patch
    • Where tendons attach
  46. Process
    • Sharp, slender, winged or pointed projection off bone
    • Spine
  47. Epiphysis
    • End of long bones
    • (includes finger / toe bones)
  48. Periosteum
    • Tough fibrous membrane
    • Covers surface of bone
  49. Osteoblast
    Build Bone
  50. Osteoclast
    Breakdown Bone
  51. Osteocystes
    Maintain Bone
  52. Hemoporetic
    Blood forming tissue
  53. Axial Skeleton
    • Consist of
    • Skull
    • Vertebral Column
    • Thorax
    • 80 Bones (flat & irregular)
  54. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Consists of upper and lower extremities
    • 64 bones upper
    • 62 bones lower
    • 126 bones total
  55. Head - Skull - Cranium
    8 Total
    • Frontal - 1 (coronal suture separates frontal from parietal)
    • Parietal - 2 (sagittal separates parietals from each other)
    • Temporal - 2 (squamous separates temporals from parietals)
    • Occipital - 1 (lamboid separates occipital from parietals)
    • Sphenoid - 1 (irregular bone) - forms base of skull
    • Ethmoid - 1 (irregular bone) - sits anterior to sphenoid
  56. Facial Bones
    14 Total
    • Nasal - 2
    • Lacrimal - 2
    • Vomer - 1
    • Zygomatics - 2
    • Palatine - 2 (along with maxilla forms hard palate)
    • Maxilla - 1
    • Mandible - 1 (only moveable bone of face)
  57. Kyphosis
    • Bowing of the back
    • Usually the Thoracic level
  58. Scoliosis
    • Lateral spinal curvature
    • Usually thoracic
    • Resulting from spinal column rotation
  59. Lordosis
    • Abnormal
    • Anterior convex curvature of Lumbar
  60. Sprain
    • Tear of ligaments of joint
    • Results in pain, swelling, and local bleeding
  61. Long Bone Construction
    • Shaped like hollow cylinders to be strong with least amount of weight
    • Have 3 distinct regions
    • Diaphysis = shaft
    • Epiphysis = ends
    • Metaphysis = transitional segment
  62. Arthroscopy
    A surgical procedure to view inside a joint
  63. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Causes symptoms in thumb, index and middle finger
  64. Sublaxation
    The incomplete dislocation of a joint
  65. Appendicular System
    Upper Extremity
    • Shoulder / Pec Girdle
    • Arm
    • Forearm
    • Wrist
    • Hand
  66. Appendicular System
    Clavicle and Scapula
    • Clavicle forms 2 Joints:
    • Sternal extremity forms Sternoclavicular Joint (SC Joint) with Sternum
    • and
    • Acromial extremity forms:
    • Acromioclavicular Joint (AC Joint) with Acromion of Scapula
    • Scapula articulates with Clavicle and Humerus
  67. Appendicular System
    Ulna and Radius
    • Long Bones
    • Forms the Antebrachium
  68. Appendicular System
    Carpals
    • Short Bones
    • 8 per wrist (16 total)
    • Proximal Row: Articulates with forearm
    • Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform
    • Distal Row: Articulates with Metacarpals (hand)
    • Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
    • Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
  69. Appendicular System
    Metacarpals (Palm)
    • 5 per hand (10 total)
    • Uses Roman Numerals
  70. Appendicular System
    Phalanges (Fingers and Toes)
    • 14 per hand (28 total)
    • 14 per foot (28 total)
    • 56 Total
    • Singular = Phalanx
    • Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP)
    • Middle Interphalangeal (MIP)
    • Distal Interphalangeal (DIP)
  71. Appendicular System
    Hand Joints
    • Where wrist meets hand: Carpometacarpal Joints (CM Joints) carpals articulate with metacarpals
    • Where metacarpals articulate with phalanges: Metacarpophalangeal Joints (MP Joints) 1st row knuckles
    • Joints between phalanges: Interphalangeal Joints (IP Joints)
  72. Lower Extremity
    Pelvic Girdle
    • 2 Pelvic bones articulate with Sacrum
    • AKA:
    • Innominate
    • Coxal
    • Os Coxae
    • Pelvis
    • Hip
  73. Lower Extremity
    Pelvic Girdle
    3 Divisions
    • Ilium - Superior Lateral
    • Ischium - Inferior Posterior
    • Pubis - Inferior Anterior
    • Ilium+Ischium = Acetabulum
    • Ischium+Pubis = Obturator Foramen
  74. Joints
    (3 types articulation)
    • Synarthrotic - Fibrous - No ROM - Sutures
    • Amphiarthrotic - Cartilage - Slight ROM - Vertebral
    • Diarthrotic - Synovial - Full ROM - Knee, shoulder
  75. 6 Types of Joints
    • Ball and Socket - (shoulder / hip) most moveable
    • Hinge - movement 2 directions (flexion , extension)
    • Pivot - 1 bone turning on another (C1-C2) Atlantoaxial Joint
    • Gliding - flat surface that articulate (vertebrae) least moveable
    • Saddle - convex surface in partial concave (thumb)
    • Condyloid / Ellipsoidal - condyle fits into elliptical socket (jaw, mp joint)
  76. Structure
    Diarthrotic Joint
    • Joint Capsule: fibrous connective tissue surrounds articulating surface
    • Synovial Membrane: produces & secretes synovial fluid
    • Articular Surface: ends of bone that articulate (covered with cartilage)
    • Joint Cavity: space between articulating bones
    • Menisci: fibrous disc, serves as shock absorber
    • Bursa Sacs: synovial fluid filled sacs (tendons)

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