Module4 key terms

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Module4 key terms
2011-04-27 19:51:30
Module4 key terms

Module4 key terms
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  1. Any substance that liberates hydrogen ions (protons) in solution; a hydrogeniondonor. An acid reacts with a metal to form a salt, neutralizes bases,and turns litmus paper red. 2. A substance that can accept a pair of electrons (Lewis acid).
  2. The pressure exerted by a fluid within a closed system.
    Hydrostatic pressure
  3. An excessive concentration of calcium in the blood. Causes include primary hyperparathyroidism, lithium therapy, malignancies (e.g., solid tumors and hematological malignancies), vitamin D intoxication, hyperthyroidism, vitamin A intoxication, aluminum intoxication; and milk-alkali syndrome.
  4. The most biologically active mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys, thereby indirectly regulating blood levels of potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as pH, blood volume, and blood pressure.
  5. An excessive amount of potassium in the blood.
  6. An ion carrying a negative charge; the opposite of cation. An anion is attracted by, and travels to, the anode (positive pole). Examples are acid radicals and corresponding radicals of their salts.
  7. An electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of magnesium in the blood.
  8. A peptide hormone that plays a crucial role in limiting the amount of water excreted by the kidneys. Deficiency of ADH causes central diabetes insipidus, excess causes water retention and hyponatremia. ADH is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; it is secreted when the osmolarity of plasma rises. Secretion of ADH increases the concentration of the urine by preventing water losses from the renal tubules. ADH also causes constriction of arterioles (raising blood pressure) and increases levels of clotting factor VIII.
    Antidiuretichormone (ADH)
  9. Increased osmolarity of the blood
  10. Absence of urine formation
  11. A tube passed into the body for evacuating fluids or injecting them into body cavities. It may be made of elastic, elastic web, rubber, glass, metal, or plastic.
  12. Pertaining to a solution of higher osmotic pressure than another.
  13. An ion with a positive electric charge; opposite of anion. It is attracted by the cathode (negative pole).
  14. An abnormal increase in the volume of circulating blood.
  15. A form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in blood plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.
    Colloid osmotic pressure, aka. Oncotic pressure
  16. Abnormally low blood calcium. This condition occurs transiently in patients with severe sepsis, severe pancreatitis, burns, and acute renal failure. It also may result from multiple transfusions with citrated blood, parathyroidectomy, malabsorption, and medications such as protamine, heparin, and glucagon. Chronic hypocalcemia may be caused by chronic renal failure, hypoalbuminemia, and malnutrition. Clinical manifestations in chronic hypocalcemia include muscle spasm, carpopedal spasm, facial grimacing, possible convulsions, and mental changes such as irritability, depression, and psychosis. Treatment consists of calcium infusions and appropriate therapy for the causative disease.
  17. Decreased intravascular, interstitial and/or intracellular fluid. This refers to dehydration, water loss alone without change in sodium. Decreased intravascular, interstitial, and/or intracellular fluid. This refers to dehydration with changes in sodium.
    Deficient fluid volume
  18. An abnormally low concentration of potassium in the blood.
  19. The clinical consequences of negative fluid balance (i.e., of fluid intakes that fail to match fluid losses). Dehydration is marked by thirst, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, elevated plasma sodium levels, hyperosmolality, and in severe instances, cellular disruption, delirium, falls, hyperthermia, medication toxicity, renal failure, or death.
  20. Decreased magnesium in the blood. Clinically, it is accompanied by increased neuromuscular irritability.
  21. Profuse sweating.
  22. Decreased osmolar concentration, esp. of the blood or urine.
  23. The tendency of the molecules of a substance (gas, liquid, or solid) to move from a region of high concentration to one of lower concentration. In the body, oxygen and carbon dioxide move by diffusion. The diffusion of water to an area of greater solute concentration is called osmosis.
  24. A decrease of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure to below normal. This occurs, for example, in shock, hemorrhage, dehydration, sepsis, Addison's disease, and in many other diseases and conditions.
  25. A diluting agent
  26. Having an osmotic pressure less than that of cells or body fluids; will cause water to enter cells, thus inducing swelling and possibly lysis.
  27. An agent that increases urine output. Diuretics are used to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure, and edema. Common side effects of these agents are potassium depletion, low blood pressure, dehydration, and hyponatremia.
  28. Insufficient amount of fluid in the circulatory system. Usually this is due to bleeding, diarrhea, or vomiting.
  29. A local or generalized condition in which body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid in the interstitial spaces.
  30. Pertaining to jaundice
  31. Edema or swelling of the lower extremities or, if the patient is lying down, of the sacrum.
    Dependant Edema
  32. Most common type of edema in legs, feet and ankles, and most commonly found in the elderly and pregnant women; can also be located in arms, but not commonly.
    Peripheral Edema
  33. Evidence of fluid in soft tissues, especially those of dependant body parts like the lower extremities. When pressed firmly with a finger, tissues that are swollen with extravascular fluid retain the shape of the depression produced by the finger
    Pitting Edema
  34. Swelling or puffiness of the skin of the lower back, causing it to appear stretched and shiny
    Sacral Edema
  35. To pass into or through a substance or a space; "to strain through"
  36. A type of IV catheter that is surgically implanted under the skin to provide an entrance to the patient's veins which allows medications or solutions to be given intravenously whenever needed.
    Infusion Port
  37. A loss of body fluid that is not easily measured (perspiration and exhalation)
    Insensible Loss of Fluids
  38. An atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons and has a positive change, or has gained one or more electrons and has a negative charge. In aqueous solutions, they are called electrolytes because they permit the solution to conduct electricity.
  39. Fluid used to irrigate cavities.
  40. Having equal pressure
  41. A white mineral element found in soft tissue, muscles, bones, and to some extent in the body fluids. Magnesium is needed for DNA repair. It moderates cellular differentiation and proliferation and improves tissue sensitivity to circulating insulin. It is a component of enzymes required for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the release of energy from ATP. It is also a component of enzymes involved in muscle contraction and protein synthesis. Deficiency may be present in patients with chronic diarrhea or diseases that interfere with absorption, or result in excessive loss (e.g., in chronic alcohol abuse).
  42. A spike that allows large volumes of fluid to flow from a bag into a collecting chamber and then into a patient, who requires rapid fluid resuscitation.
  43. The normal serum value of phosphorus is 2.5 to 4.5 mg/dl. Normally, plasma concentrations of phosphorus and calcium have a reciprocal relationship: as one increases, the other decreases; A nonmetallic element not found in a free state but in combination with oxygen and cations such as calcium, sodium, and potassium; Excess phosphorus is excreted by the kidneys and intestines, about 60% being excreted in urine principally as phosphates. Phosphorus deficiency is characterized by impaired appetite, weight loss, retarded growth, weakness, and malformation of bones and teeth. Bony malformation resulting from disorders of phosphorus metabolism is known either as rickets or osteomalacia.
  44. A mineral element that serves as both the principal cation in intracellular fluid and an important electrolyte in extracellular fluid; Along with other electrolytes (e.g., sodium, magnesium, calcium, chloride), potassium participates in many functions, including cell membrane homeostasis, nerve impulse conduction, and muscle contraction; Muscle weakness, dizziness, thirst, confusion, changes in the electrocardiogram, and life-threatening arrhythmias may develop during potassium deficiency (hypokalemia).
  45. One thousandth of a chemical equivalent. The concentration of electrolytes in a certain volume of solution is usually expressed as milliequivalent per liter (mEq/L). It is calculated by multiplying the milligrams per liter by the valence of the chemical and dividing by the molecular weight of the substance.
  46. The most abundant cation in extracellular fluids; It is the main contributor to osmotic pressure and hydration; participates in many specialized pumps and receptors on cell membranes; and plays a fundamental part in the electrical activities of the body (e.g., nerve impulse transmission and muscular contraction); The normal sodium level in serum is 135 to 145 mmol/L. A decreased level of sodium in the serum is called hyponatremia. An increased level of sodium in the serum is called hypernatremia. These conditions are not usually excesses or deficiencies of sodium per se but rather disturbances in the body's regulation of water (i.e., a change in measured sodium concentrations usually results from water retention or water depletion and not from too little or too much sodium in the body).
  47. Osmotic pressure exerted by colloids in a solution.
    Oncotic Pressure
  48. The process of removing particles from a solution by allowing the liquid portion to pass through a membrane or other partial barrier. This contains holes or spaces that allow the liquid to pass but are too small to permit passage of the solid particles.
  49. Osmotic concentration; the characteristic of a solution determined by the ionic concentration of the dissolved substances per unit of solvent.
  50. Name the 2 major types of fluid compartments
    • 1. Extracellular (ECF)
    • 2. Intracellular (ICF)
  51. What are the 3 subcategories of Extracellular fluid (ECF)?
    • 1. Interstitial fluid
    • 2. Intravascular fluid
    • 3. Third spacing compartments
  52. Fluid within the cell; The potassium-rich, sodium-poor watery solution inside cells. Approximately 55-75% of total body water is intracellular.
    Intracellular fluid
  53. Fluid outside the cell.
    Extracellular Fluid (ECF)
  54. Tissue fluid; the fluid between cells, in tissue spaces
    Interstitial Fluid
  55. That portion of the total body fluid contained within blood and lymphatic vessels.
    Intravascular Fluid
  56. Space in the body where fluid does not normally collect in larger amounts, or where any significant fluid collection is physiologically nonfunctional (ex: peritoneal cavity and pleural cavity)
    Third spacing compartments
  57. The passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations. The solvent, usually water, passes through the membrane from the region of lower concentration of solute to that of a higher concentration of solute, thus tending to equalize the concentrations of the two solutions. The rate of osmosis is dependent primarily upon the difference in osmotic pressures of the solutions on the two sides of a membrane, the permeability of the membrane, and the electric potential across the membrane and the charge upon the walls of the pores in it.
  58. The force with which a solvent, usually water, passes through a semipermeable membrane separating solutions of different concentrations. It is measured by determining the hydrostatic (mechanical) pressure that must be opposed to the osmotic force to bring the passage to a standstill.
    Osmotic Pressure
  59. The line which provides a direct infusion between the container and peripheral vein
    Primary Infusion Line
  60. Pert. to something left as a residue
  61. A line which provides infusion through a lateral access into the primary infusion line
    Secondary Infusion Line
  62. This could correct the electrolyte imbalance in hyponatremia, but diuretics, mainly vasopressin receptor antagonists, show better efficiency.
    Fluid Restriction
  63. The resistance of the skin to deformation, esp. to being grasped between the fingers. In a healthy person, when the skin on the back of the hand is grasped between the fingers and released, it returns to its normal appearance either immediately or relatively slowly. The state of hydration of the skin can determine which of these reactions occurs, but age is the most important factor. As a person ages, the skin returns much more slowly to its normal position after having been pinched between the fingers. The skin over the forehead or sternum may be used when assessing turgor in elderly persons.
    Skin Turgor
  64. Decreased intravascular, interstitial, and/or intracellular fluid. This refers to dehydration with changes in sodium. NANDA has restricted Fluid Volume deficit to address only isotonic dehydration. For patient needs related to dehydration associated with alterations in sodium, the authors have provided this second diagnostic category
    Fluid volume deficit
  65. The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
  66. The state in which an individual experiences increased isotonic fluid retention.
    Fluid volume excess
  67. The weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. For solid and liquid materials, water is used as a standard and considered to have a specific gravity of 1.000.
    Specific gravity (Abbreviated: sp. gr.)
  68. Delay in the return of pinched skin to a flat position, after it has been tugged, elevated above the rest of the epidermis, and released. The return becomes progressively slower as the skin ages and subcutaneous elastic tissue decreases. It is also slowed in dehydrated persons.
  69. The sensation resulting from the lack of adequate body water or desire for liquids. Excessive thirst may be an early symptom of diabetes as the kidneys excrete extra water in an effort to decrease circulating glucose levels. Thirst is common following fever, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, vigorous exercise, or other causes of hypovolemia or hyperosmolality. In addition, thirst may be associated with the use of diuretics, tricyclic antidepressants, and some antihistamines, among other drugs.
  70. Property of possessing tone, especially muscular tone.
  71. The conversion of a liquid or solid into vapor.