B. Micro Exam Three

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B. Micro Exam Three
2011-04-28 17:10:47
Pathogenicity Infection Control immune defenses epidemiology growth control

Final Exam
Show Answers:

  1. Define: latent infection
    symptoms are off and on
  2. Define: primary infection
    • the 1st infection
    • (cold)
  3. Define: secondary infection
    • the 2nd infection
    • (ear infection)
  4. Define: virulence
    ability of something to make you sick
  5. Define: virulence factors
    increased virulence of a microbe
  6. Define: adhesions
    molecules thats attach to things
  7. Define: receptors
    receives bacteria
  8. Define: pili
    hairlike projections
  9. Define: obligate intracellular pathogens
    must be in your cells in order to survive
  10. Define: facultative intracellular pathogens
    can live in ot out of body
  11. Define: capsules
    slime that cover certain bacteria
  12. Define: exoenzymes
    mechanisms which bacteria cause disease
  13. Define: necrotizing enzymes
    destroy tissue
  14. Define: coagulase
    form blood clot
  15. Define: kinases
    dissolves clots
  16. Define: hyaluronidase
    breaks down hyaluronic acid
  17. Define: collagenase
    allow bacteria into tissue
  18. Define: hemolysins
    damage red blood cells
  19. Define: endotoxins
    part of bacterial cell wall
  20. Define: exotoxins
    cell makes them & then releases into bloodstream
  21. Define: neurotoxins
    damage CNS
  22. Define: exfoliative toxin
    produced by some strains of S. aureus
  23. Define: enterotoxins
    cause GI disease
  24. Define: Immunology
    study of immune system and immune responses
  25. Define: immunity
    ability of body to defend itself
  26. Define: first line of defense
    • non-specific
    • physical barriers
  27. List & define the parts of the 1st line of defense:
    • skin & mucous membranes - skin (protect & lining organs), mm (lining upper resp. tract & nose)
    • cellular & chemical factors - stomach acid, saliva, tears
    • microbial antagonism - indig. microflora prevent pathogens from building up & causing disease
  28. Compare non-specific & specific immune defenses:
    • non-specific:physical & chemical defenses
    • specific: antigens
  29. Define: the 2nd line of defense
    Inflammation blocks off bacteria from the rest of the body
  30. List & define the parts of the 2nd line of defense:
    inflammation blocks off bacteria from the rest of the body
  31. Define: phagocytosis
    a cell eating something
  32. Define the function of: neutrophils
  33. Define the function of: eosinophils
  34. Define the function of: basophils
  35. Define the function of: macrophages
  36. Define the function of: wandering macrophages
  37. Define the function of: fixed macrophages
  38. List 2 ways microbes escape destruction by phagocytes:
    • capsules
    • leukocidin
    • waxes of the cell wall
  39. Define: humoral immunity
    production of antibodies
  40. Define: cell-mediated immunity
    cells that go around to kill stuff
  41. Define: acquired immunity
    get infected & then body mounts a response to it
  42. Define: active acquired immunity
    production of memory of an infection
  43. Define: passive acquired immunity
    IV of antibodies
  44. How does a vaccine provide immunity?
    gives you 1st exposure to virus/bacteria & body reacts to it and remembers it & gets rid of it
  45. Define the function of: T lymphocytes
    responsible for cell-mediated immunity
  46. Define the function of: helper T cells
    regulate immune responses by enhancing response of other immune cells
  47. Define the function of: cytotoxic T cells
    • destroy cells bearing w/ antigen
    • (infected cells, cancer cells)
  48. Define the function of: memory T cells
    remembers past infections
  49. Define the function of: B lymphocytes
    makes antibodies & are the way body remembers a pathogen
  50. Define the function of: plasma cells
    produce antibodies
  51. Define the function of: memory B cells
    remembers past infections
  52. Define the function of: NK cells
    kills your own cells if infected...infected cells, cancer cells
  53. What is the function of antibodies?
    bind to antigens
  54. Define: hypersensitivity reaction
    immune system overreacts to an atigen or is too sensitive
  55. Define: anaphylaxis
    immediate, severe, sometimes fatal, systemi allergic reaction
  56. Define: dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  57. Define: anaphylactic shock
    severe & potentially life-threatening
  58. Define: autoimmune disease
    body produces antibodies directed against its own tissues
  59. Define: immunosuppression
    immune system is weakened & can't provide a full immune response
  60. Define: epidemiology
    study of factors that determine frequency, distribution, & determinants of diseases in humans
  61. Define: communicable disease
    disease that can be passed on from one person to another
  62. Define: contagious disease
    disease that is easily transmitted from one person to another
  63. Define: incidence
    # of new cases of a disease in a certain area over a specific time period
  64. Define: morbidity rate
    # of new cases of disease that occured during a specific time period per specifically defined population
  65. Define: mortality rate
    death rate
  66. Define: sporadic disease
    disease that occurs only occasionally
  67. Define: endemic disease
    diseases that are always present within the population of a particular geographic area
  68. Define: epidemic disease
    • greater than usual # of cases of a disease in a particular region
    • (short time period)
  69. Define: pandemic disease
    disease that occurs in epidemic proportions in multiple countries at the same time, often worldwide
  70. What are the 6 components of the chain of infection?
    • 1.must first be a pathogen
    • 2. must be a source of the pathogen (a reservoir)
    • 3. must be a portal of exit (way for pathogen to move to another host)
    • 4. must be a mode for transmission
    • 5. must be a portal of entry (way for pathogen to enter host)
    • 6. must be a susceptible host
  71. Define: reservoir
    sources of microbes that cause disease
  72. Define: living reservoir
    humans, household pets, farm animals, wild animals, some insects, some arachnoids
  73. Define: carrier
    a person who has a pathogen but pathgen isn't causing disease in the person
  74. Define: passive carrier
    carry the pathogen w/o ever having had the disease
  75. Define: incubatory carrier
    capable of transmitting the pathogen during the incubation period of disease
  76. Define: convalescent carrier
    can transmit disease
  77. Define: active carrier
    completely recovered from the disease, but will always have the pathogen
  78. Define: zoonotic disease
    infections acquired from animals
  79. Define: vector
    insects are reservoirs for pathogens that transmit disease