Pharmacology Final

Card Set Information

Author:
Rx2013
ID:
82334
Filename:
Pharmacology Final
Updated:
2011-04-27 20:35:50
Tags:
Dietary Herbal
Folders:

Description:
Dietary and Herbal 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Rx2013 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Placebo effect with herbal supplements can contribute up to ____ % of the observed response
    30-50%
  2. All statements reguarding positive benefits of herbal supplements should be reguarded as ___ and safety should be considered ___.
    • preliminary
    • tenative
  3. In charge of proving supplements to be un-safe
    FDA
  4. dietary supplements
    plant based substances and synthetic purified chemicals
  5. 3 most widely used species of echinacea
    • purpurea
    • pallida
    • angustifolia
  6. chemical constituents of echinacea
    • flavonoids
    • lipophilic constituents
    • water soluble polysaccharides
    • water soluble caffeoyl conjugates
  7. Most widely studied echinecia species
    purpurea
  8. chicoric acid, alkamides and polysaccharides are most often noted as having
    immune modulating properties
  9. Human studies using E purpurea have shown
    • increased phagocytosis
    • increased WBC
    • increased monocytes & neutrophils
    • increased NK cells
  10. in vitro e purpurea increased production of
    • interleukins 1, 6 & 10
    • tumor necrosis factor alpha
  11. Isolated purified polysaccharides from E purpurea have shown
    cytokin activation
  12. E purpura extract shows _____ in all cell lines
    enhanced natural killer cell activitity
  13. Certain echinacea constituents have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties invitro via inhibition of
    • cyclooxygenase
    • 5-lipoxygenase
    • hyaluronidase
  14. Randomized controlled clinical trials involving echinacea for wound healing
    have not been performed in humans
  15. echinacea is most often used in individuals who have
    colds and other respiratory tract infections
  16. Meta analysis of 14 randomized trials for echinacea for cold treatment or prevention
    • decreased odds of developing clear signs and symptoms of a cold by 58%
    • decreased symptom duration by 1.25 days
  17. Echinacea has been used investigationally to enhance
    hematologic recovery following chemo
  18. echinacea also used as an ajunct treatment of
    UTI and vaginal fungal infections
  19. E. purpurea is ineffective in treating
    recurrent genital herpes
  20. ADEs with echinacea
    • Flu like sympotms with IV use
    • GI upset or rash(5%) with oral use
  21. Echinacea should be avoided in these pts
    • immune deficiency
    • autoimmune disorders (MS, RA)
    • tuberculosis
  22. Echinacea should not be used with
    • medications known to cause a disulfiram like reaction
    • echinacea has a high alcohol content
    • pt. taking immunosuppresant drugs
  23. Echinacea should not be used as a preventative agent longer than
    10-14 days
  24. Vipers/pit vipers
    • rattlesnakes
    • copperhead
    • water moccasin
  25. Elapids
    • coral snake
    • arizona coral snake
  26. Pit viper venom (crotalid)
    • hemovenom
    • marked tissue destruction
    • hemolysis
  27. coral snake venom (micrurus)
    • neurotoxic
    • non-depolarizing muscle blockade
    • onset may be delayed up to 12 hours
  28. Signs of crotalid bite
    • swelling
    • pain
    • perioral numbness
    • dizziness
    • ecchymosis
    • decreased platelet activity
    • hypotension/shock
  29. Micrurus symptoms
    • sialorrhea
    • ptosis
    • dysphagia
    • local paresthesias
    • tremor
    • respiratory distress
  30. Snakebite treatment
    • relax to reduce venom flow
    • ice (do not freeze tissue)
    • NPO for 24 hours after bite
    • crotalid polyvalent immune Fab - no skin test
    • maintain airway
    • sedation
    • anti-infectives
  31. Micrurus treatment
    • anivenin micrurus fulvius
    • requires skin test
  32. Maintain airways with
    beta agonists
  33. sedation and pain releif with pit vipers
    • no non-steroidals, meperidine or morphine
    • use APAP
  34. sedation with Coral snake bites
    • no sedation because of neurotoxicity
    • APAP for pain
  35. Other drugs to avoid with snake bites
    • steroids - dampens immune response
    • heparin
  36. Venomous insect treatment
    • Ice or cold compress
    • remove stinger
    • monitor for anaphylaxis
    • local anesthetic
    • watch for 2' infection
  37. poisonous spiders
    • latrodectus mactans - black widow
    • loxosceles reclusa - brown recluse
  38. Black widow symptoms
    • no local reaction
    • cramping in large muscle groups
    • fasciculations/sweating
    • ptosis
    • seizures in children
    • HTN in elderly
  39. Black widow toxin
    • alpha latrotoxin
    • opens Ca2+ channels allowing calcium movement into cells
  40. Black widow treatment
    • clean site/tetanus
    • ice
    • latrodectus antivenin
    • calcium gluconate IV for muscle contractions
    • methocarbamol/diazepam
  41. Brown recluse toxins
    • sphingomyelinase D
    • Dermanecrosis factors 33 and 37
    • phospholipase
    • protease
    • esterase
    • collagenase/hyaluronidase
    • DNAase/RNAase
  42. Extensive tissue damage at site of brown recluse bite usually due to
    • sphingomyelinase D
    • demanecrosis factor 33 and 37
  43. Brown recluse symptoms
    • burning/pruritis
    • bull's eye lesion
    • fever
    • vesicle formation
    • necrosis
  44. brown recluse treatment
    • ice
    • corticosteroids
    • dapsone
    • anti-infectives prn
  45. scorpion bite symptoms
    • pain at sting site
    • nystagmus
    • tachycardia/HTN
    • fasciculations/ataxia
    • respiratory distress
    • seizures
  46. scorpion sting therapy
    • ice for 2 hours only
    • topical anesthetic/antibiotic
    • establish airway
    • betablockers
    • benzodiazepines
    • centruroides antivenin

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview