Rad 2

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Author:
mayabug
ID:
82364
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Rad 2
Updated:
2011-04-30 00:00:26
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Radiology
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Radiology
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  1. mesothelial layers of the pleura
    • parietal- on wall
    • visceral- on lungs
  2. location of pleural fissure lines
    • Right cranial and right middle lung lobe: rib 5-6
    • Right middle and right caudal lung lobe: rib 7-8
    • Left cranial and left caudal lung lobe: rib 6-7
    • may not see unless abnormal
  3. scalloped margin at base of heart
    • pericardial fat
    • see more in older dogs
  4. R vs L lateral view of thorax
    • R: see L lungs- L cranial and caudal, accessory
    • L: see R lungs- R cranial, middle and caudal, accessory, tiny piece of L cranial lobe
  5. pulmonary arteries and viens in lateral radiograph
    • arteries are dorsal to bronchus
    • veins are ventral to bronchus
  6. pulmonary arteries and veins in VD/DV radiograph
    • arteries are lateral to bronchus
    • veins are medial to bronchus
  7. mediastinum
    • potential space btw the right and pleural sacs
    • incomplete in dogs and cats
    • transudates tend to be bilateral
    • exudates tend to be unilateral (bc pus plugs hole)
  8. cranial mediastinum
    • trachea
    • brachiocephalic trunk
    • esophagus
    • cranial mediastinal LN
    • azygous vein
    • internal thoracic artery and veins
    • cranial vena cava
    • nerves
    • common carotid arteries
    • thymus
  9. middle mediastinum
    • cardiac silhouette
    • carina- bifurcation of bronchi
    • tracheobronchial LN
    • aorta
    • esophagus
    • phrenic nerve
    • vagosympathetic trunk
  10. caudal mediastinum
    • caudal vena cava
    • esophagus
    • descending aorta
  11. thymus in thoracic rad
    • in left cranial thorax just above heart
    • normal in young
  12. cranial dorsal and ventral mediastinum
    • cranial follows trachea
    • caudal follows sternum
  13. Left lateral view- unique things seen
    • rounded heart
    • separation of diaphragmatic crura- Lis dorsal
    • right lung lobes seen
    • distinct lobar vessels
  14. Right lateral view- unique things seen
    • egg shaped heart
    • parallel diaphragmatic crura- R is more cranial
    • superimposition of vessels
    • left lung lobes seen
  15. heart width in dog vs cat in lateral view
    • D: 3-3.5 x width of intercostal space
    • C: 2-3 x width of intercostal space
  16. thoracic rad of chondrodystrophic breed
    pleural indentations
  17. dorsal deviation of trachea
    flexion of head and neck
  18. redundant tracheal muscle
    esophagus and trachealis muscle overlie the dorsal margin of the trachea
  19. clockface analogy- lateral
    • 12-3 left atrium, left auricle
    • 3-5 left ventricle
    • 5-7:30 right ventricle
    • 7:30-9 right atrium
    • 9-11 great vessels
  20. clockface analogy- VD/DV
    • 11-1 aortic arch
    • 1-2 main pulm artery
    • 2:30-3 left auricle
    • 2-5 left ventricle
    • 5-9 right ventricle
    • 9-11 right atrium
    • 6 left atrium at bifurcation of trachea (2-3 in cat)
    • 7 caudal vena cava
  21. canine heart size
    • 2.5-3.5 ICS
    • 3/5 L of tracheal bifurcation
    • 2/5 R of tracheal bifurcation
    • 8.7-10.7 VHS
    • exceptions- boxer, cocker, greyhound, lab
  22. Vertebral heart score
    • start at corina and connect to apex
    • take line and put over vertebrae (start at 4th)
    • count vert
    • put line perpendicular to other
    • take line and put over vert and count
    • add 2 vert counts to get VHS
    • canine normally 8.7-10.7
    • feline normally <8
  23. radiograph vs echocardiograph
    • R: insentive, nonspecific, screening tool for cardiac abnormalities
    • E: diagnostic tool
  24. normal greyhound heart
    • VD very oval and elongated bc thin dog
    • lateral upright and small
  25. normal silky terrier heart
    round heart
  26. normal cavalier king charles spaniel
    chunky heart
  27. normal dachshund heart
    • peanut heart
    • thin chest so heart looks big
  28. heart appearance at end inspiration
    heart looks small
  29. pulmonary vessels on radiograph
    • associated artery and vein should be symmetrical
    • size compared to 4th rib on lateral and 9th rib on DV
    • lateral view- artery, bronchus, vein (ventral)
    • DV view- artery, bronchus, vein (medial)
    • "vein is central and ventral"
  30. lateral view of pulmonary vessels
    • L or R cranial lobar vein is ventral (distinct on left lat but overlap on right lat)
    • R cranial lobar artery 90 degree turn
    • artery and vein same width as 4th rib
  31. DV view of pulmonary vessels
    • L or R caudal lobar vein is central
    • artery and vein same width as 9th rib
  32. end-on vessel
    • vessel in cross section
    • mistaken as pulm nodule
    • vessels are next to bronchi
    • associate with longitudinal vessels
    • organized pattern
    • opaque soft tissue
    • well defined margins
  33. pulmonary nodules
    • not associated with vessels
    • do not follow pattern
    • any size
    • well or ill defined margins
  34. trachea
    • see in lateral view
    • uniform in diameter
    • not straight if neck is bent
    • can be superimposed with trachealis muscle or esophagus
    • trachea:thoracic inlet is .2 in dog, .16 in brachycephalic
  35. correct lateral positioning for rad
    • pelvic limbs perpendicular to spine
    • transverse processes of spine superimposed
  36. Zone 1 lateral
    • liver
    • spleen head
    • stomach- fundus and body
    • adrenal glands
    • kidneys- mostly right
    • pancreas
  37. Zone 1 VD
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • stomach- pylorus
    • proximal duodenum
    • adrenal gland- right
    • kidney- right
    • pancreas
  38. Zone 2 lateral
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • stomach- body and pylorus
    • pancreas
  39. Zone 2 VD
    • liver
    • spleen- head
    • stomach- fundus and body
  40. Zone 3 lateral
    • spleen- body and tail
    • stomach- pylorus
    • kidneys
    • adrenal glands
    • ureters
    • pancreas
    • mesenteric LN
    • small intestine
    • colon
    • ovaries
    • uterus
  41. Zone 3 VD
    • spleen
    • stomach- body
    • kidneys
    • adrenals
    • ureters
    • pancreas
    • mesenteric LN
    • small intestine
    • colon
    • ovaries
    • uterus
  42. Zone 4 lateral
    • medial iliac LN
    • ureters
    • colon
    • uterus
    • urinary bladder
    • prostatic gland
    • pelvic LN
  43. Zone 4 VD
    • medial iliac LN
    • ureters
    • colon
    • uterus
    • urinary bladder
    • prostatic gland
    • pelvic LN
  44. Zone 5 lateral
    • small intestine
    • mesenteric LN
    • ureters
    • uterus
    • urinary bladder
    • prostatic gland
  45. peritoneal space
    • see detail due to fat/soft tissue
    • young have less fat
    • emaciated have less fat
    • mass will dec contrast
    • fluid may lead to all soft tissue opacity and loss of serosal margin detail

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