Microbiology Human Flora + teeth test 3
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What is fever caused by?
Innate immune response to Pyrogens.
A pyrogen is __?__.
A substance that causes fever.
The two types of pyrogens are __?__ and __?__.
Endogenous and exogenous
An endogenous pyrogen is __?__. Examples include __?__, __?__, and __?__.
- Formed inside the body in response to an outside stimulant.
- Interferons, TNF, IL-6
An exongenous pyrogen is __?__. An example is __?__.
- A pyrogen that originates from outside the body.
The high temperature of a fever is caused by __?__.
Skin is difficult to colonize because it's __?__, __?__,__?__, and __?__.
dry, salty, acidic, and has protective oils.
The bacteria that do colonize the skin are mostly __?__.
G (+) anaerobes
__?__ commonly inhabits the naso and oropharynx and can be dangerous if __?__ or __?__ and form __?__.
- G (+) anaerobes
- they get into the blood stream or;
- create plaques which cause gum disease
__?__ is found in the stomach because it __?__ by __?__ where it can __?__.
- Helicobacter pylori
- survive in pH 1
- burrowing into the protective mucous where it can;
- cause ulcers
Loss of acidity in the stomach, aka __?__, can be caused by __?__ which __?__.
- allows pathogens to grow
The majority of human microflora are found in the __?__ where they __?__ and __?__.
Intestine where they ferment digested food and provide nutrients and inhibit pathogens.
The __?__ are sterile while __?__ contain __?__ bacteria.
Kidney and bladder are sterile while the urethra and vagina contain G (+) cells and G (-) enterobacteriacea.
The four structures of the tooth are __?__.
The cause of a Carie is __?__.
From the acidic byproducts of bacterial fermentation of sugars (lactic acid).
Cariogenic bacteria include __?__ which converts __?__ and __?__
Streptococcus mutans which converts sucrose to dextrin, S. epidermitis which forms a thick protective biofilm and Lactobaccilus acidophlius.
Saliva plays what role in preventing caries?
Acts as a buffer to keep mouth pH around 6.5-7.2. Rapid demineralization occures at pH 5.5.
Plaque formations enhance formation of caries by __?__.
trapping sugars for bacterial fermentation which lowers pH. They also provide an anaerobic enviornment for bacteria to live in.
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