Chapter 12

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Author:
dwatters
ID:
82376
Filename:
Chapter 12
Updated:
2011-04-27 23:11:05
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Central nervous system
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CNS
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  1. Parietal lobe
    • * Located posterior to the frontal lobe
    • * Central sulcus separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe
    • * Receives sensory information from the skin
    • * Understanding speech
  2. Ventricles of the brain
    • * The brain contains interconnected cavities called ventricles
    • * The cavities contain a fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid
    • * Lateral ventricle, third ventricle, and fourth ventricle
  3. Temporal lobe
    • * Located below the frontal lobe and parietal lobes
    • * Function in receiving auditory stimuli
  4. Cerebrum
    • * The brain is made of two hemispheres: Right and left
    • * There are five lobes within the cerebral hemisphere: frontal parietal, temporal occipital, and insula
  5. Brain
    • * Divide into four major portions:
    • o Cerebrum-decision making
    • o Diencephaon-
    • o Brain stem-
    • o Cerebellum-
  6.  Frontal lobe (commands; motor lobe)
    • * Forms the anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere
    • * Location of the primary motor cortex
    • * Stimulate skeletal muscle s
    • * Reasonable for speech production
    • * Function in concentration, planning and problem solving
  7.  Occipital lobe
    • * forms the posterior portion of cerebral hemisphere
    • * Important in visual stimuli
  8. Medulla oblongata
    • * Contains cardiac center
    • o Heart rate
    • * Vasomotor center
    • o Stimulate smooth muscles arround blood vessels
    • o Affects blood pressure
    • * Respiratory center
    • o Regulates respiratory center
    • * Sneezing, coughing, swallowing, vomiting center
  9. Brain
    • * The brain is composed to 100 billion neurons
    • * Neurons communicate with each other or with other organs through synapses formation
  10.  Diencephalon
    • * Made of two regions
    • o Thalamus
    • o hypothalamus
  11. Hypothalamus
    • * Regulates heart rate and blood pressure
    • * Body temperature
    • * Water and electrolytes balance
    • * Control of hunger and body weight
    • * Controls the secretion of the posterior pituitary gland
    • * Sleep and wakefulness
  12. Midbrain
    • * Contains the corticospinal tract responsible for connection between the cortex and spinal cord
    • * Contains ceners for visual reflex and auditory refelx
  13. Pons
    • * Located below the midbrain
    • * Contains respiratory centers
  14. Ascending tracts
    • * Spinothalamic tract
    • * Carry information from the spinal cord to the thalamus
  15. Thalamus
    • * central relay station for sensory impulses
    • * It receives all sensory information except the sense of smell
    • * Channels all the inputs into the proper region of the brain
  16. Anatomy of the spinal cord
    • * Protected by vertebral column
    • * Surrounded by three layers of the meninges
    • * Roots extend to become spinal nerves
  17.  Protection of the brain
    • * The brain controls every function in the body and therefore must be heavily protected from trauma and injury
    • * there are four levels of protection:
    • o Skull
    • o Meninges
    • o Cerebrospinal fluid
    • o Blood brain barrier
  18. Blood brain barrier
    • * Chemical protection made of tight capillary network that prevents many chem and toxic material from passing to the brain
    • * However it is not a complete barrier
    • * It permits
  19. Meninges
    • * Have three layers
    • o Dura matter-
    • * Tough white fibrous connective tissue
    • * Contains many blood vessels
    • * Archnoid
    • o Thin membrane without blood vessels
    • * Pia
    • o Very thin membrane that contains blood vessels to nourish underlying nervous tissue
  20.  Cerebellum
    • * Located below the occipital lobe
    • * Consists of two lateral hemispheres
    • * Communicates with various parts of the cerebrum
    • * Provides coordination of skeletal muscle movements
    • * Integrates balance information
  21. Cross section of the spinal cord
    • * Anterior median fissure is a groove that divides the spinal cord into right and left halves
    • * Central gray matter is surrounded by white matter
    • * Upper and lower wings of the gray matter are called posterior and anterior
    • * Lateral horn is located laterally on the gray matter
    • * White matter is divided into anterior, lateral, and posterior finiculi
    • * The CSF circulates in the central canal
  22. Spinal cord
    • * Slender nerve column that passes from the brain at the level of foramen magnum
    • * Consists of 31 segments where 31 pairs of spinal nerves originate
    • * Tapers and terminates at l1-l2
  23. Function of the spinal cord
    • * The amterior horn contain cell bodies of motor neurons
    • * Posterior and lateral horns contain interneurons
    • * The white matter contain nerve tracts
  24. How does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate in the bran?
    • * From the lateral ventricle, CSF ciculates through the interventricle foramen to the third ventricle
    • * From the third ventricle, the CSF goes to the fourth ventricle via the cerebral aqueduct
    • * From the fourth ventricle, CSF travels through the central canal to the spinal cord and to the subarachnoid space
  25. Function of cerebrospinal fluid
    • * Supports and protect the brain by acting as a shock absorber
    • * Maintain a stable ionic concentration
    • * Provide a pathway of waste products to the blood
  26. Descending tract
    • * Corticospinal tract
    • * Originates in the cortex of the brain and carries electrical signals to skeletal muscles
  27. Skull
    • * Four major bones
    • o Frontal
    • o Parietal
    • o Temporal
    • o Occipital
    • * Bones are connected together by strong fibrous suture joint

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