chapter 16.txt

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dwatters
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chapter 16.txt
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2011-04-27 23:25:17
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ch 16
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  1. Function of the endocrine system
    • * Helps regulate metabolic process
    • * Aids in transport of various molecules across cells
    • * Maintains water balance
    • * Important in reproduction
    • * Promotes growth on many tissue
  2. Mechanism of hormone action
    • * Hormone affects only certain tissues or organs (target cells)
    • * Target cells must have specific protein receptor[matching protein to the TC]
    • * Hormone building influence the working of the cells
    • [hormones use blood to circulate]
  3. The endocrine system
    • * includes many endocrine glands
    • * Uses chemical messengers called hormones, released into the circulation
    • * Differ in its mode of release compared to the nervous system
    • * [glands and hormones make up endocrin system]
  4. Hydrophilic hormones (image)
    • * Hydrophilic hormones bind to the receptor protein on the membrane
    • * They start a second messenger system
    • * First, the hormone activates another protein calles adenylate cyclase (AC)
    • * AC activates cAMP
    • * cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA)
    • * PKA stimulates changes in the cell
    • [cannot access the cell but can affect the cell indirectly-cascading event ]
  5. Hydrophobic hormone (image)
    • * Hydrophobic hormones can freely cross the membrane
    • * They get to the nucleus and bind to the receptor
    • * The receptor-protein complex bind to the DNA
    • * RNA is made from the DNA
    • * RNA binds to ribosomes and makes specific proteins
    • * Proteins made cause changes in the cell
    • [can acces the cell & directly affect the cell]
    • Around about way in to the cell
  6. Differences between endocrine release and nervous release
    • * Neurons release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft to affect the postsynaptic cell
    • * Glands release hormones into the circulation to affect target cells
    • Physical can get in to the cell directly
  7. Major endocrine glands
    • * Hypothalumus
    • * Pituitary
    • * Parathyroid
    • * Kidney
    • * Testes
    • * Pineal
    • * Thyroid
    • * Thymus
    • * Adrenal glands
    • * Kidneys
    • * Pancreas
    • * Gonads
    • [know what hormones are released & what it does for each gland]
  8. Hormonal control
    • * Homonal release is activated by other hormones
    • * For example, glucose levels are measured constantly in the blood. If the level is high, insulin is released
  9. Hormonal secretion
    • * The level of hormones in the blood is always controlled by the brain
    • * different glands are controled by different mechanism s
    • * Humoral, neuronal, or hormonal
  10. Adrenal glands
    • * Sit on top of the kidneys
    • * Made of two glands:
    • o The adrenal cortex
    • o The adrenal medulla
  11. Humoral control
    • * The level of certain chemical is always measured in the blood and based on this hormone may or may not be released
    • * For example, glucose level are measured constantly in the blood. If the level is high, insulin is released
  12. Neuronal control
    The glands are stimulated directly bty
  13. Adrenal cortex
    • * Release two hormones:
    • * Aldosterone
    • * Acts on the kidneys to retain sodium and secrete potassium
    • o Cortisol
    • * Stress hormone that increases nutrients (glucose, fat, aand amino acids) in the blood
  14. Anterior pituitary gland (6)
    • * Made of epithelial cell
    • * Growth hormone
    • * Prolactin: milk production
    • * Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulate the thyroid gland to release its hormone
    • * Adrenalcorticotropic hormone (ACTH); causes the adrenal gland to relea
    • * Follicle stimulating homone (FSH) act on the testes and ovaries
    • * Luteinizing hormone: acts on the testes and ovaries
  15. Thyroid gland
    • * Located below the larynx
    • * Made of two lobes connected by isthmus
    • * Produceed two hormones:
    • o Thyroid hormone
    • o Calcitonin:
    • * Thyroid hormone
    • o Increase cell metabolism
    • * Calcitonin
    • o Decrease calcium levels in in blood
    • o Increase calcium levels in the bones
    • * Parathyroid hormone increase
  16. Posterior pituitary gland (2)
    • * Made of neurons
    • * Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): prevents water loss
    • * Oxytocin: smooth muscle contraction and milk ejection
  17. Adrenal medulla
    • * Releases the hormones epinephrine and norepiphrine
    • o Stress hormones that increase heart rate breathing rate and glucose level in the blood
    • o Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system activates the flight or fights
  18. How can hormones stimulate changes in target cells?
    • * Hormones have different chemical composition
    • * Some are hydrophilic and some are hydrophobic
    • * The hybrophobic ones can cross the cell membrane very easily
    • * The hydrophilic ones can not cross the membrane and therefore bind to receptor proteins on the membrane
  19. Pancreatic hormone
    • * Glucagon
    • o Increase glucose level in the blood
    • o Released furing fast
    • * Insulin
    • o Decreased glucos level in the blood
    • o Released after a sugar meal
  20. What is the difference between the stress hormones released from the cortex and the medulla
    • * Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released due to short-term stress such as a bio exam
    • * Cortisol is released to chronic stress
  21. Other endocrine glands
    • * Pineal gland
    • o Releases melatonin that helps circadian rhythm
    • * Thymus gland
    • o Releases thymosins that is important in the immune system
    • * Ovaries and testes
    • o Secrete hormone important reproduction
    • * Kidneys
    • o Release erythropoitientin to stimulate bone to release red blood cells
  22. Pancreas
    • * Located behind the stomach
    • * Release two hormone that are antagonistic to each other
    • * Disorder associated with pancreatic hormone cause diabetes
  23. What are the effects caused by hormones?
    • * Change in plasma membrane, permeability, or electrical state
    • * Synthesis of protiens and enzymes
    • * Activation of inactive enzymes
    • * Stimulation of cell division
  24. Parathyroid gland
    • * Located posterior to thyroid gland
    • * Releases parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • o Increase calcium level in the blood

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