chapter 17.txt

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dwatters
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chapter 17.txt
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2011-04-27 23:26:29
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ch 17
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  1. Red blood cells: erythrocytes
    • * Biconcave shape
    • * No organelles
    • * Most abundant
    • * Contain large quantity of hemoglobin (Hb), a special protein that binds oxygen
    • * Each erythrocytes contain 250 million Hb
    • [carries oxygen]
    • [one type of RBC, stay in the blood]
  2. How is blood collected?
    • * Collect blood sample in a test tube
    • * Centrifuge [spins the blood to separate the blood components]
    • * Blood components will be separated by density
    • * Red blood cells are the most abundant and will be at the bottom (hematocrit)
    • * White blood cells and platelets in the middle
    • * Plasma which is the fluid (water and proteins) will stay on top
  3. White blood cells
    • * Protect against disease and infection
    • * Many different types:
    • o Neutrophils
    • o Eosinophils
    • o Basophils
    • o Monocytes
    • o Lumphocytes
    • * They can leave blood cirulation (diapedesis)
    • * Will be discussed in chapter 14
    • Multiple type of WBC
  4. Control of RBC in the blood
    • * The hormone erythropoietin is released from the kidney and liver
    • * It acts on red bone marrow to release red blood cells
  5. Platelets
    • * Fragments of cells
    • * Half the size of red blood cells
    • * Important in blood clotting by controlling blood loss from broken blood vessels
    • * When blood vessels are broken
    • * Platelets adhere to each other from a clot to prevent blood loss
  6. What would happen if you eat a lot of fat?
    • * A lot of fat deposits will build up in the blood vessels
    • * Less blood can travel in lumen
    • * The walls of the arteries hardens
    • * This process is called atherosclerosis
  7. Blood plasma
    • 92% water
    • * Contains many proteins
    • o Albumins (maintain pressure in the blood)
    • o Globulins (transport of lipid, and fat soluble vitamins, & antibodies)
    • o Fibrinogen (blood coagulation)
    • * Electrolytes (ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium,�)
  8. ABO blood Groups
    • * When a person who is type A blood carrying antigen A, the immune system will protect the individual by releasing antibody-anti B
    • * Antibody-anti B will attack any receptor that is not antigen A
    • * If antibody-anti B attacks antigen B agglutination will occur
  9. Human blood groups
    • * The ABO blood group is based on the presence or absence of a major protein found in the cell membrane of the red blood cells
    • * This protein is called antigenthere are many types of antigens
    • o Antigen A, Antigen B, both Antigens A & B, or neither
    • * If a red blood cells carries Antigen A, the individual is said to have type A blood
    • * If a red blood cells carries Antigen B, the individual is said to have type B blood
    • * If a red blood cells carries Antigen A & Antigen B, the individual is said to have type AB blood
    • * If a red blood cells carries neither Antigen A & Antigen B, the individual is said to have type O blood
  10. Rh Blood Group
    • * The RH antigen group is know as antigen D
    • * If a person carries antigen D, he/she is considered Rh postitive
    • * If the RBC membrane lacks the antigen, the individual is considered Rh negative

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