Urinary System

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Urinary System
2011-04-28 13:52:31
Med Terms

Med Terms Ch 12
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  1. albumin/o
  2. bacteri/o
  3. cyst/o, vesic/o
    bladder or sac
  4. dips/o
  5. glomerul/o
    glomerulus (small ball)
  6. gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o
    glucose (sugar)
  7. ket/o, keton/o
    ketone bodies
  8. lith/o
  9. meat/o
    meatus (opening)
  10. nephr/o, ren/o
  11. pyel/o
    renal pelvis (basin)
  12. py/o
  13. ureter/o
  14. urethr/o
  15. ur/o, urin/o
  16. kidneys
    two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine
  17. cortex
    outer part of the kidney
  18. hilum
    indented opening in the kidney where vessels enter and leave
  19. medulla
    inner part of the kidney
  20. calices or calyces
    ducts that carry urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis
  21. nephron
    microscopic functional units of the kidney, comprised of kidney cells and capillaries, each of which is capable of forming urine
  22. glomerulus
    small, ball-shaped cluster of capillaries located at the top of each nephron
  23. Bowman capsule
    top part of the nephron that encloses the glomerulus
  24. renal tubule
    stem portion of the nephron
  25. ureter
    tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
  26. renal pelvis
    basin-like portion of the ureter within the kidney
  27. ureteropelvic junction
    point of connection between the renal pelvis and the ureter
  28. urinary bladder
    sac that holds the urine
  29. urethra
    single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
  30. urethral meatus
    opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
  31. urine
    fluid produced by the kidneys, containing water and waste products
  32. urea
    waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and exreted in urine
  33. creatinine
    waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
  34. albuminuria/proteinuria
    presence of albumin in the urine, such as occurs in renal disease or in normal urine after heavy exercise
  35. anuria
    absence of urine formation
  36. bacteriuria
    presence of bacteria in the urine
  37. dysuria
    painful urination
  38. enuresis
    involuntary discharge of urine, usually referring to a lack of bladder control
  39. nocturnal enuresis
    bed-wetting during sleep
  40. glucosuria/glycosuria
    glucose (sugar) in the urine
  41. hematuria
    presence of blood in the urine
  42. incontinence
    involuntary discharge of urine or feces
  43. stress urinary incontinence (SUI)
    involuntary dischare of urine with coughing, sneezing and/or strained exercise
  44. ketonuria
    presence of ketone bodies in the urine
  45. ketone bodies/ketone cmpds
    acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid; products of metabolism that appear in the urine from the body's abnormal utilization of carbohydrates, such as occurs in uncontrolled diabetes or starvation
  46. nocturia
    urination at night
  47. oliguria
    scanty production of urine
  48. polyuria
    condition of excessive urination
  49. pyuria
    presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
  50. urinary retention
    retention of urine resulting from an inability to void (urinate) naturally b/c of spasm or obstruction
  51. adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD)
    inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidney, causing, destruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure; diagnosed in adults presenting with hypertension, kidney enlargement, and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTIs)
  52. glomerulonephritis
    form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
  53. hydronephrosis
    pooling of urine in dilated areas of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys caused by an obstructed outflow of urine
  54. nephritis
    inflammation of the kidney
  55. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis
  56. nephrosis
    degenerative disease of the renal tubules
  57. nephrolithiasis
    presence of a renal stone or stones
  58. cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  59. urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  60. urethrocystitis
    inflammation of the urethra and bladder
  61. urethral stenosis
    narrowed condition of the urethra
  62. urinary tract infection (UTI)
    invasion of pathogenic organisms (commonlyh bacteria) in the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include dysuria, urinary frequency, and malaise
  63. uremia/azotemia
    excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood caused by kidney failure
  64. cystoscopy
    examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
  65. kidney biopsty/renal biopsy
    removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination
  66. intravenous pyelogram (IVP)/intravenous urogram (IVU)
    x-ray image of the urinary tract obtained after and iodine contrast medium has been injected into the bloodstream; the contrast passes through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma
  67. kidneys, ureters, bladder (KUB)
    abdominal x-ray image of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; typically used as a scout film before obtaining an intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
  68. scout film
    plain-film x-ray image obtained to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging
  69. renal angiogram/renal arteriogram
    x-ray image of the renal artery obtained after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
  70. retrograde pyelogram (RP)/ retrograde urogram
    x-ray image of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis obtained after contrast medium has been injected up to the kidney by way of a small catheter passed through a cystoscope; used to detect the presence of stones, obstruction, etc.
  71. voiding cystourethrogram
    x-ray image of the bladder and urethra obtained during urination
  72. abdominal sonogram
    abdominal ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder
  73. urinalysis (UA)
    physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine
  74. specific gravity (SpGr)
    measure of the concentration or dilution of urine
  75. pH
    measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine
  76. gluccose
    chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; most often used to screen for diabetes
  77. albumin (alb)
    chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine
  78. ketones
    chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates that fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs during starvation or an uncontrolled diabetic state
  79. urine occult blood
    chemical ttest for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys
  80. bilirubin
    chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; seen in gallbladder and liver disease
  81. urobilinogen
    chemical test used to detect bile pigment in the urine; increased amounts are seen in gallbladder and liver disease
  82. nitrite
    chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine
  83. microscopic findings
    microscopic identification of abnormal constituents in the urine; reported per high- or low- power field
  84. urine culture and sensitivity (C&S)
    isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture are identified, as are drugs to which they are sensitive
  85. blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
    blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the inability of one or both kidneys to excrete urea
  86. creatinine, serum
    test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood; useful in assessing kidney function
  87. creatinine, urine
    test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine
  88. creatinine clearance testing
    measurements of the level of creatinine in the blood and in a 240hour urine specimen to determine the rate at which creatinine is "cleared" from the blood by the kidneys
  89. urologic endoscopic surgery
    use of specialized endoscopes within the urinary tract to perform various surgical procedures, such as resection of a tumor, repair of an obstruction, stone retrieval, placement of a stent
  90. resectoscope
    urologic endoscope inserted throught the urethra to resect (cut and remove) lesions of the bladder, urethra, or prostate
  91. intracorporeal lithotripsy
    method of destroying stones within the urinary tract using discharges of electrical energy that are transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope; most commonly used to pulverize bladder stones
  92. nephrotomy
    incision into the kidney
  93. nephrorrhaphy
    suture of an injured kidney
  94. nephrolithotomy
    incision into the kidney for the removal of stones
  95. nephrectomy
    excision of a kidney
  96. pyeloplasty
    surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis
  97. stent placement
    use of a device (stent) to hold open vessels or tubes
  98. kidney transplantation/ renal transplantation
    transfer of a kidney from the body of one person (donor) to another (recipient)
  99. urinary diversion
    creation of a temporary or permanent diversion of the urinary tract to provide a new passage through which urine exits the body; used to treat defects or diseases
  100. noncontinent ileal conduit
    removal of a portion of the ileum to use as a conduit to which the ureters are attached at one end; the other end is brought through an opening (stoma) created in the abdomen; urine drains continually into an external appliance; noncontinent indicates that urine cannot be held and drains continually
  101. continent urostomy
    an internal reservoir (pouch) constructed from a segment of intestine that diverts urine through an opening that is brought through the abdominal wall; a valve is created internally to prevent leakage; and the patient empties the pouch by catheterization; continent refers to the ability to hold or retain urine
  102. orthotopic bladder/neobladder
    bladder constructed from portions of intestine connected to the urethra, allowing "natural" voiding
  103. extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
    procedure using ultrasound outside the body to bombard and disintegrate a stone within; most commonly used to treat urinary stones above the bladder
  104. kidney dialysis
    methods of filtering impurities from the blood, replacing the function of one or both kidneys lost in renal failure
  105. hemodialysis
    method of removing impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine
  106. peritoneal dialysis
    method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; a catheter inserted in the peritoneal cavity delivers cleansing fluid that is washed in and out in cycles
  107. urinary catheterization
    methods of placing a tube into the bladder to drain or collect urine
  108. straight catheter
    a type of catheter that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to relieve urinary retention or to collect a sterile specimen of urine for testing; the catheter is removed immediately after the procedure
  109. foley catheter
    indwelling catheter inserted through the urethra and into the bladder that includes a collection system allowing urine to be drained into a bag; the catheter can remain in place or an extended period
  110. suprapubin catheter
    indwelling catheter inserted directly in the bladder through an abdominal incision above the pubic bone that indicates a collection system that allows urine to be drained into a bad; used in patients requiring long-term catheterization
  111. analgesic
    drug that relieves pain
  112. antibiotic
    drug that kills or inhibits the growht of microorganisms
  113. antispasmodic
    drug that relieves spasm
  114. diuretic
    drug that increases the secretion of urine
  115. alb
  116. APKD
    adult polycystic kidney disease
  117. BUN
    blood urea nitrogen
  118. Bx
  119. C&S
    culture and sensitivity
  120. ESWL
    extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
  121. hpf
    high-power field
  122. IVP
    intravenous pyelogram
  123. IVU
    intravenous urogram
  124. KUB
    kidneys, ureters, bladder
  125. lpf
    low-power field
  126. RP
    retrograde pyelogram
  127. SpGr
    specific gravity
  128. SUI
    stress urinary incontinence
  129. UA
  130. UTI
    urinary tract infection
  131. VCU or VCUG
    voiding cystourethrogram