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2011-04-28 01:27:13

Intro to Physical Anthropology
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  1. Classification
    The ordering of organisms into categories, such as orders, families, and genera, to show evolutionary relationships
  2. Chordata
    The phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
  3. Homologies
    Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
  4. Analogies
    Similarities between organisms based strictly on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent
  5. Homoplasy
    The separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms
  6. Evolutionary systematics
    A traditional approach to classification (and evolutionary interpretation) in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters
  7. Cladistics
    An approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters
  8. Ancestral
    Referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character first appeared; also called primitive
  9. clade
    a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor
  10. monophyletic
    referring to an evolutionary group composed of descendants all sharing a common ancestor
  11. derived (modified)
    referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and this diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages
  12. theropods
    small to medium sized group living dinosaurs, dated to approximately 150 mya and thought to be related to birds
  13. shared derived
    relating to specific character traits shared in common between two life-forms and considered the most useful for making evolutionary interpretations
  14. phylogenetic tree
    a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics
  15. cladogram
    a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis
  16. biological species concept
    a depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
  17. speciation
    the process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species
  18. recognition species concept
    a depiction of species in which the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members of their own species for the purpose of mating
  19. ecological species concept
    the concept that species is a groups of organisms exploiting a sing niche
  20. ecological niche
    the position of a species within its physical and biological environments
  21. phylogenetic species concept
    splitting many populations into separate species based on an identifiable parental pattern of ancestry
  22. allopatric
    living in different areas
  23. sexual dimorphism
    differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species
  24. intraspecific
    within species; refers to variation seen within the same species
  25. interspecific
    between species; refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two species
  26. paleospecies
    species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a long time span
  27. genus
    a group of closely related species
  28. geological time scale
    the organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs
  29. continental drift
    the movements of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface
  30. epochs
    categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods
  31. placental
    a type of mammal
  32. heterodont
    having different kinds of teeth
  33. endothermic
    able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
  34. adaptive radiation
    the relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life-forms into new ecological niches
  35. punctuated equilibrium
    the concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change