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When was the first revolution? How did it start? How many workers were on strike by the end of the month?
1905 revolution. January. When Tsar decided to divert attention of depression by starting war with Japanese, it created economic dificulties. 400,000
When and at the end of which revolution did the Tsar abdicate?
1917 Feb Revolution. 2nd March, Tsar abdicated.
During which period did the Provisional government rule over Russia?
Feb 1917-Oct 1917
Who opposed the October revolution? Why?
Zinoviev and Kamenev. They feared that the Bolsheviks would become isolated and defeated by other powers
What percentage of the population were peasants?
What was Stalin, Trotsky and Sverdlov's role in the October revolution?
Stalin was the editor of Pravda. Trotsky and Sverdlov organised last stages of revolution
How did Zinoviev and Kamenev disagree with Lenin?
they wanted to build socialist coalition government. They believed isolated government needed to use terror and would be defeated in Civil War
When was the Russian Civil War?
Who were the opponents of the Bolshevik in the Civil war?
- whites - nationalists, tsarists
- greens - peasant armies
How many people died in the famine of the Civil war?
1921, 5m died
What was the role of Stalin and Trotsky in the Civil war?
Stalin was the commissar of nationalities (made sure russia stayed together), Trotsky was the commissar for war
How did Trotsky organise the Red Army?
families of troops held hostage for loyalty. return to tradition tsarist army. But the army was effective, Trotsky was inspirational
When was war communism?
1918-20. During civil war
State 5 features of War Communism
- 1. grain requisitioning
- 2. banning of private trade (black market developed)
- 3. nationalization of industry
- 4. labour discipline
- 5. rationing
- 6. Red terror of the Cheka
What prompted the Red Terror of the Cheka? when?
How many died?
assassination attempt of Lenin (opposition against war communism and treaty of bresk-litovsk). Terror in summer 1918
1918-20, 300,000 died
When was the ban of factions?
When was the USSR proclaimed?