Neuroscience Exam 1

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Neuroscience Exam 1
2011-05-04 14:49:55
Neuroscience Exam

Vocab etc. for Chapter 1-
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  1. What charge does the cytosol have at rest in respect to the extracellular fluid?
    The cytosol at rest is negatively charged in respect to the extracellular fluid.
  2. What happens to the charge durring an action potential?
    it is reversed. The cytosol becomes positive for an instant.
  3. other names for an action potential?
    spike, nerve impulse, or discharge.
  4. What is the "code" of an action potential?
    the frequency and pattern.
  5. Does the magnitude of an action potential diminish over time/distance?
    No it remains constant and they are similar in size and durration.
  6. What kind of voltometer is used to measure action potentials?
    An oscilloscope, which records the voltage as it changes over time.
  7. Rapid depolarization of the membrane (peak at about 40Vm)
    rising phase
  8. the part of the action potential where the inside of the neuron is positively charged with respect to the outside.
  9. Rapid repolarization until the membrane is actually more negative than the resting potential.
    falling phase.
  10. the last part of the falling phase (when the action potential is more negative than the resting potential).
    undershoot or after-hyperpolarization
  11. Describe the durration of the action potential.
    Resting potential (aprox -65 mV), swift depolarization (because it is reaching 0) called Rising phase, Overshoot at about 40 mV, Falling phase with swift repolarization resulting in Undershoot and then a return to the Resting potential. Durration: 2 msec.
  12. Action potentials are caused by:
    depolarization that crosses the threshold.
  13. the point at which the generator potential achieves a critical level.
  14. Why are action potentials all-or-none?
    There is no action potential until/unless depolarization crosses the threshold. Then one action potential is created.
  15. What effects the firing frequency of the action potential?
    the magnitude of the depolarizing current.
  16. How does the nervous system encode stimulation intensity?
    the firing frequency of action potentials.
  17. What is the maximum firing frequency of neurons?
    about 1000Hz.
  18. What is the absolute refractory period?
    the time in which it is impossible to initiate another action potential, about 1 msec.
  19. What is the relative refractory period?
    when it is difficult to initiate another action potential for several milliseconds after the absolute refractory period because the amount of current required to depolarize the neuron to threshold is above normal. (this is due to the undershoot)
  20. First to claim the brain as the seat of intelligence
    Who was Hippocrates?
  21. Thought the brain was a radiator to cool the seething heart.
    What did Aristotle think the brain's function was?
  22. Claimed the cerebrum was for sensation and the cerebellum was for muscles.
    What was Galen's theory about the brain?
  23. What was Galen's theory about the Ventricles?
    Who thought that the Ventricles were filled with humors that controlled sensation and movement?
  24. What was the fluid mechanical theory?
    What theory claimed that the brain had a machine/hydrolic like function that pumped fluids from the brain to the muscles?
  25. Who embrased the fluid mechanical theory?
    Descartes is famous for "I think therefore I am" and embrased what theory regarding the brain's function?
  26. Vesalius was famous for what?
    Who was famous for their drawings of the human brain's structure?
  27. What were the major discoveries of the Renaissance to the Nineteenth century?
    • Grey and white matter
    • dissected nervous system
    • CNS and PNS
    • Gyri, sulci, and fissures are the same on all people.
    • Two lobes
    • different function on different area
  28. What was the nerves as wires theory?
    Nerves act as _____ that conduct electrical current to and from the brain.
  29. What did Bell contribute?
    Who discovered that motor fibers go to the Cerebellum and sensory fibers go to the Cerebrum?
  30. What did Magendie contribute?
    Who discovered that ventral roots carry sensory information?
  31. Who discovered the localized function of vison?
    Munk used abolition to show that the occipital lobe did what?
  32. Ferrier, Fritsch, and Hitzig discovered what?
    Who discovered that sending electrical currents into the brain would cause movement?
  33. Why is the Broca area called the Broca area and what is it's function?
    Paul Broca discovered that a stroke killed a part of a man's brain and he could no longer speak. What was this area called?
  34. Who was a proponent of Phrenology?
    Gall tried to link behavior traits with bumps on the head. What was this called?
  35. Marie-jean-Pierre opposed phrenology, but used bird brains to show what?
    Following Bell and Magendie's hypothesis M-j-Pierre worked to show which parts of the brain were for motor function.
  36. Why use the reductionist approach?
    To make the brain easier to study research is broken down into smaller "bite-sized" parts called what?
  37. How are the levels of reduction determined?
    The size of the unit of study determines what in the reductionist approach?
  38. Molecular approach
    the molecules of the brain are studied. What are it's elements? Begins with DNA of nucleus and ends with protein synthesis.
  39. Cellular approach
    how all the molecules work together. How neurons work at different life stages, with eachother, what kinds there are, functions, etc.
  40. Systems approach
    how the molecules work together to form perceptions, make decisions, and execute movement in each system. Auditory, visual etc.
  41. Behavioral approach
    how the different systems work together to produce behavior. (where do dreams come from? neural activity for gender specific behavior)
  42. Cognitive approach
    self awareness. mental imagery, language. How brain activity creates the "mind".
  43. Steps in the scientific process
    Hypothesis, Observation, Replication, Interpretation, Verification
  44. Schwann had a cell theory what was it?
    Who theorized that all tissues are composed of microscopic units called cells?